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中英文对照:中华人民共和国物权法
作者:赵丽娜律师发布   出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2011-03-31 13:53:00

Property Law of the People's Republic of China

中华人民共和国物权法

Promulgating Institution: National People's Congress
Document Number: Order No. 62 of the President of the People's Republic of China
Promulgating Date: 03/16/2007
Effective Date: 10/01/2007
Validity Status: Valid
颁布机关: 全国人民代表大会
文     号: 中华人民共和国主席令第六十二号
颁布时间: 03/16/2007
实施时间: 10/01/2007
效力状态: 有效

Text

正文

Order of the President of the People's Republic of China
No. 62
The Property Law of the People's Republic of China, adopted at the Fifth Session of the Tenth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on March 16, 2007, is hereby promulgated and shall go into effect as of October 1, 2007.
Hu Jintao   President of the People's Republic of China
March 16,2007
中华人民共和国主席令
第六十二号
《中华人民共和国物权法》已由中华人民共和国第十届全国人民代表大会第五次会议于2007年3月16日通过,现予公布,自2007年10月1日起施行。

中华人民共和国主席 胡锦涛
2007年3月16日
 
Property Law of the People's Republic of China
(Adopted at the Fifth Session of the Tenth National People's Congress on March 16, 2007) 
中华人民共和国物权法
(2007年3月16日第十届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过)
Contents
Part 1: General Provisions
Chapter 1: Basic Principles
Chapter 2: Creation, Alteration, Transfer and Extinction of the Property Right
Section 1: Registration of the Immovables
Section 2: Delivery of the Movables
Section 3: Other Provisions
Chapter 3: Protection of the Property Right
Part 2: Ownership
Chapter 4: General Stipulations
Chapter 5: Ownership of the State, the Collective and the Individual Person
Chapter 6: Condominium Right of Property Owners
Chapter 7: Neighboring Relations
Chapter 8: Co-ownership
Chapter 9: Special Provisions on Acquirement of Ownership
Part 3: Usufructs
Chapter 10: General Stipulations
Chapter 11: The Right to Land Contractual Management
Chapter 12: The Right to the Use of Land for Construction
Chapter 13: The Right to the Use of House Sites
Chapter 14: Easements
Part 4: Security Interest in Property
Chapter 15: General Stipulations
Chapter 16: Interests Obtained from Mortgage
Section 1: General Interest Obtained form Mortgage
Section 2: Maximum Mortgage Interest
Chapter 17: Interest Acquired Through Pledge
Section 1: Interest Acquired Through Pledge of Movables
Section 2: Interests Acquired Through Pledge of Rights
Chapter 18: Lien
Part 5: Possession
Chapter 19: Possession
Supplementary Provisions
    目录
    第一编  总则
    第一章  基本原则
    第二章  物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭
    第一节  不动产登记
    第二节  动产交付
    第三节  其他规定
    第三章  物权的保护
    第二编  所有权
    第四章  一般规定
    第五章  国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权
    第六章  业主的建筑物区分所有权
    第七章  相邻关系
    第八章  共有
    第九章  所有权取得的特别规定
    第三编  用益物权
    第十章  一般规定
    第十一章  土地承包经营权
    第十二章  建设用地使用权
    第十三章  宅基地使用权
    第十四章  地役权
    第四编  担保物权
    第十五章  一般规定
    第十六章  抵押权
    第一节  一般抵押权
    第二节  最高额抵押权
    第十七章  质权
    第一节  动产质权
    第二节  权利质权
    第十八章  留置权
    第五编  占有
    第十九章  占有
    附则
Part 1: General Provisions
第一编  总则
Chapter 1: Basic Principles
第一章  基本原则
Article 1    This Law is enacted in accordance with the Constitution for the purpose of upholding the basic economic system of the State, maintaining the order of the socialist market economy, defining the attribution of things, giving play to the usefulness of things and protecting the property right of obligees.
     第一条  为了维护国家基本经济制度,维护社会主义市场经济秩序,明确物的归属,发挥物的效用,保护权利人的物权,根据宪法,制定本法。
Article 2    This Law shall be applicable to civil relationships stemming from attribution and use of things.
For the purposes of this Law, things include the immovables and the movables. Where laws stipulate that rights are taken as objects of the property right, the provisions of such laws shall prevail.
The property right mentioned in this Law means the exclusive right enjoyed by the obligee to directly dominate a given thing according to law, which consists of the right of ownership, the usufruct and the security interest on property.
     第二条  因物的归属和利用而产生的民事关系,适用本法。
    本法所称物,包括不动产和动产。法律规定权利作为物权客体的,依照其规定。
    本法所称物权,是指权利人依法对特定的物享有直接支配和排他的权利,包括所有权、用益物权和担保物权。
Article 3    In the primary stage of socialism, the State upholds the basic economic system under which public ownership is dominant and the economic sectors of diverse forms of ownership develop side by side.
The State consolidates and develops the public sectors of the economy, and encourages, supports and guides to the development of the non-public sectors of the economy.
The State maintains a socialist market economy and guarantees the equal legal status and the right to development of all the mainstays of the market.
     第三条  国家在社会主义初级阶段,坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度。
    国家巩固和发展公有制经济,鼓励、支持和引导非公有制经济的发展。
    国家实行社会主义市场经济,保障一切市场主体的平等法律地位和发展权利。
Article 4    The property right of the State, the collectives, the individual persons and other obligees are protected by law, and no units or individuals shall encroach on it.
     第四条  国家、集体、私人的物权和其他权利人的物权受法律保护,任何单位和个人不得侵犯。
Article 5    The categories and contents of the property right shall be stipulated by law.
     第五条  物权的种类和内容,由法律规定。
Article 6    The creation, alteration, transfer or extinction of the property right of the immovables shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of law. The property right of the movables shall be created or transferred upon delivery in accordance with the provisions of law.
     第六条  不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,应当依照法律规定登记。动产物权的设立和转让,应当依照法律规定交付。
Article 7    The law shall be observed and social ethics shall be respected in acquiring or exercising the property right and public interests and the lawful rights and interests of another person shall not be jeopardized.
     第七条  物权的取得和行使,应当遵守法律,尊重社会公德,不得损害公共利益和他人合法权益。
Article 8    Where other laws specially provide for the property right otherwise, the provisions there shall prevail.
     第八条  其他相关法律对物权另有特别规定的,依照其规定。
Chapter 2: Creation, Alteration, Transfer and Extinction of the Property Right
第二章  物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭
Section 1: Registration of the Immovables
第一节  不动产登记
Article 9    The creation, alteration, transfer or extinction of the property right shall become valid upon registration according to law; otherwise it shall not become valid, unless otherwise provided for by law.
Registration of ownership of all the natural resources which are owned by the State in accordance with law may be dispensed with.
     第九条  不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,经依法登记,发生效力;未经登记,不发生效力,但法律另有规定的除外。
    依法属于国家所有的自然资源,所有权可以不登记。
Article 10    Registration of the immovables shall be handled by the registration authority at the place where they are located.
The State practices a unified system of registration with respect to the immovables. The scope of unified registration, the registration authority and the measures for registration shall be stipulated by law and administrative regulations.
     第十条  不动产登记,由不动产所在地的登记机构办理。
    国家对不动产实行统一登记制度。统一登记的范围、登记机构和登记办法,由法律、行政法规规定。
Article 11    To apply for registration, the party concerned shall, on the basis of the different matters for registration, submit the the certificate of the attribution of right and the necessary materials on boundary and the area of the immovables, etc.
     第十一条  当事人申请登记,应当根据不同登记事项提供权属证明和不动产界址、面积等必要材料。
Article 12    The registration authority shall perform the following duties:
(1) to examine the certificate of the attribution of right and the other necessary materials submitted by the applicant;
(2) to inquire of the applicant about the matters for registration;
(3) to register the relevant matters truthfully and in a timely manner; and
(4) to perform the other duties provided for by laws and administrative regulations.
Where further certification of the condition of the immovables, the registration of which is applied for, is needed, the registration authority may require the applicant to supplement the materials and may, when necessary, check them on the spot.
     第十二条  登记机构应当履行下列职责:
    (一)查验申请人提供的权属证明和其他必要材料;
    (二)就有关登记事项询问申请人;
    (三)如实、及时登记有关事项;
    (四)法律、行政法规规定的其他职责。
    申请登记的不动产的有关情况需要进一步证明的,登记机构可以要求申请人补充材料,必要时可以实地查看。
Article 13    The registration authority shall not do any of the following:
(1) demanding evaluation of the immovables;
(2) making repeated registration in the name of annual inspection, etc.; or
(3) doing other things beyond the limits of its duty for registration.
     第十三条  登记机构不得有下列行为:
    (一)要求对不动产进行评估;
    (二)以年检等名义进行重复登记;
    (三)超出登记职责范围的其他行为。
Article 14    Where the creation, alteration, transfer and extinction of the property right of the immovables are required to be registered according to the provisions of law, they shall become valid as of the time when they are entered in the register of the immovables.
     第十四条  不动产物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,依照法律规定应当登记的,自记载于不动产登记簿时发生效力。
Article 15    The contract made between the parties concerned on the creation, alteration, transfer or extinction of the property right of the immovables shall become valid as of the time when the contract is concluded, unless otherwise provided for by law or agreed upon in the contract; and where the property right is not registered, it shall not affect the validity of the contract.
     第十五条  当事人之间订立有关设立、变更、转让和消灭不动产物权的合同,除法律另有规定或者合同另有约定外,自合同成立时生效;未办理物权登记的,不影响合同效力。
Article 16    The register of the immovables provides the basis for the attribution and contents of the property right.
The register of the immovables shall be kept by the registration authority.
     第十六条  不动产登记簿是物权归属和内容的根据。不动产登记簿由登记机构管理。
Article 17    The right attribution certificate of the immovables is the proof that the obligee is entitled to the property right of the said immovables. The items recorded in the right attribution certificate of the immovables shall be consistent with what is recorded in the register of the immovables; and in case of inconsistencies, what is recorded in the register of the immovables shall be taken as the standard unless there is evidence to prove that there are errors in what is recorded in the register of the immovables.
     第十七条  不动产权属证书是权利人享有该不动产物权的证明。不动产权属证书记载的事项,应当与不动产登记簿一致;记载不一致的,除有证据证明不动产登记簿确有错误外,以不动产登记簿为准。
Article 18    The obligee or the interested party may apply for consulting and duplicating the registered information, and the registration authority shall provide such materials accordingly.
     第十八条  权利人、利害关系人可以申请查询、复制登记资料,登记机构应当提供。
Article 19    Where the obligee or the interested party believes that there are errors in what is recorded in the register of the immovables, he may apply for correction. Where the obligee recorded in the register of the immovables agrees in written form to make corrections or there is evidence to prove that there are definitely errors in the registration, the registration authority shall make corrections accordingly.
Where the obligee recorded in the register of the immovables disagrees on making corrections, the interested party may apply for the registration of disagreement. Where the registration authority registers the disagreement, the applicant in question fails to file a lawsuit within 15 days from the date the disagreement is registered, such a registration shall become invalid. If damages are caused to the obligee due to inappropriate registration of disagreement, the obligee may request the applicant to make compensation.
     第十九条  权利人、利害关系人认为不动产登记簿记载的事项错误的,可以申请更正登记。不动产登记簿记载的权利人书面同意更正或者有证据证明登记确有错误的,登记机构应当予以更正。
    不动产登记簿记载的权利人不同意更正的,利害关系人可以申请异议登记。登记机构予以异议登记的,申请人在异议登记之日起十五日内不起诉,异议登记失效。异议登记不当,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以向申请人请求损害赔偿。
Article 20    When the party concerned intends to sign an agreement on the purchase or sale of a house or other property right of immovables, he may, in accordance with what is agreed upon, apply to the registration authority in advance for registration, in order to ensure the realization of his property right in future. Where after the registration is made in advance, such immovables are disposed of without the consent of the obligee who is recorded in the registration in advance, the property right of such immovables shall be invalid.
Where after the registration is made in advance, the creditor's rights extinguish or no application for registration of the immovables is made within three months from the date when such registration can be made, the registration made in advance shall become invalid.
     第二十条  当事人签订买卖房屋或者其他不动产物权的协议,为保障将来实现物权,按照约定可以向登记机构申请预告登记。预告登记后,未经预告登记的权利人同意,处分该不动产的,不发生物权效力。
    预告登记后,债权消灭或者自能够进行不动产登记之日起三个月内未申请登记的,预告登记失效。
Article 21    Where the party concerned submits false materials when applying for registration, thus causing damages to another person, he shall be liable for compensation.
Where damages are caused to another person due to the errors made in registration, the registration authority shall be liable for compensation. After making the compensation, the said authority may have recourse to the person who makes the errors in registration.
     第二十一条  当事人提供虚假材料申请登记,给他人造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
    因登记错误,给他人造成损害的,登记机构应当承担赔偿责任。登记机构赔偿后,可以向造成登记错误的人追偿。
Article 22    Charges for registration of the immovables shall be collected piece by piece and shall not be collected on the basis of the areas or sizes of the immovables or in proportion to the purchase prices.  The specific rates for the charges shall be prescribed by relevant department under the State Council together with the department of pricing.
     第二十二条  不动产登记费按件收取,不得按照不动产的面积、体积或者价款的比例收取。具体收费标准由国务院有关部门会同价格主管部门规定。
Section 2: Delivery of the Movables
第二节  动产交付
Article 23    The creation or transfer of the property right of the movables shall become valid as of the time of their delivery, unless otherwise provided for by law.
     第二十三条  动产物权的设立和转让,自交付时发生效力,但法律另有规定的除外。
Article 24    Before registration, the creation, alteration, transfer or extinction of the property right of the vessels, aircraft, motor vehicles, etc. shall not be used against a bona fide third party.
     第二十四条  船舶、航空器和机动车等物权的设立、变更、转让和消灭,未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 25    Where an obligee has already possessed the movables according to law prior to the creation or transfer of the property right of such movables, the property right shall become valid as of the time when such legal act becomes effective.
     第二十五条  动产物权设立和转让前,权利人已经依法占有该动产的,物权自法律行为生效时发生效力。
Article 26    Where a third party has taken possession of the movables according to law prior to the creation or transfer of the property right of the said movables, the person who is obligated to deliver the movables may do so, instead, through transferring the right of requesting the third party to return the original movables. 
     第二十六条  动产物权设立和转让前,第三人依法占有该动产的,负有交付义务的人可以通过转让请求第三人返还原物的权利代替交付。
Article 27    Where both parties agree that the transferor continues to possess the movables while the property right of such movables is being transferred, the said property right shall be valid as of the time when the said agreement becomes effective.
     第二十七条  动产物权转让时,双方又约定由出让人继续占有该动产的,物权自该约定生效时发生效力。
Section 3: Other Provisions
第三节  其他规定
Article 28    Where the property right is created, altered or transferred or extinguishes in accordance with the legal document of a people's court or an arbitration committee or a decision made by a people's government on expropriation, etc., such creation, alteration, transfer and extinction shall become valid as of the time when the said document or decision comes into effect.
     第二十八条  因人民法院、仲裁委员会的法律文书或者人民政府的征收决定等,导致物权设立、变更、转让或者消灭的,自法律文书或者人民政府的征收决定等生效时发生效力。
Article 29    Where the property right is obtained through inheritance or acceptance of legacy, such property right shall become valid as of the time of inheritance or acceptance of legacy.
     第二十九条  因继承或者受遗赠取得物权的,自继承或者受遗赠开始时发生效力。
Article 30    Where the property right is created or extinguishes due to such factual acts as lawful construction and demolition of houses, such property right shall become valid as of the time when the factual acts are achieved.
     第三十条  因合法建造、拆除房屋等事实行为设立或者消灭物权的,自事实行为成就时发生效力。
Article 31    Where a person enjoys the property right over the immovables in accordance with the provisions of Articles 28 through 30 of this Law, and registration is required according to the provisions of laws, when such property right is disposed of, the property right shall be invalid if no registration is made.
     第三十一条  依照本法第二十八条至第三十条规定享有不动产物权的,处分该物权时,依照法律规定需要办理登记的,未经登记,不发生物权效力。
Chapter 3: Protection of the Property Right
第三章  物权的保护
Article 32    Where the property right is encroached on, the obligee may have the matter settled by means of conciliation, mediation, arbitration or litigation.
     第三十二条  物权受到侵害的,权利人可以通过和解、调解、仲裁、诉讼等途径解决。
Article 33    Where a dispute arises over the attribution or contents of the property right, the interested parties may request confirmation of their right.
     第三十三条  因物权的归属、内容发生争议的,利害关系人可以请求确认权利。
Article 34    Where a person takes possession of the immovables or movables without the right to do so, the obligee may request return of the original immovables or movables.
     第三十四条  无权占有不动产或者动产的,权利人可以请求返还原物。
Article 35    Where the property right is impaired or is likely to be impaired, the obligee may request removal of such impairment or elimination of the potential danger.
     第三十五条  妨害物权或者可能妨害物权的,权利人可以请求排除妨害或者消除危险。
Article 36    Where the immovables or movables are damaged or destroyed, the obligee may request repairs, reconstruction or remaking, replacement or restoration to their original state.
     第三十六条  造成不动产或者动产毁损的,权利人可以请求修理、重作、更换或者恢复原状。
Article 37    Where the infringement of the property right causes damages to an obligee, the obligee may request compensation for the damages and may also request the infringing party to assume other civil liabilities.
     第三十七条  侵害物权,造成权利人损害的,权利人可以请求损害赔偿,也可以请求承担其他民事责任。
Article 38    The forms for protection of the property right as provided for in this Chapter may be applied separately and may also be applied otherwise, depending on the circumstances of infringement.
Apart from bearing civil liability for infringement on the property right, a person who, in addition, violates the administrative provisions shall bear administrative liability according to law; and if a crime is constituted, he shall be investigated for criminal liability according to law.
     第三十八条  本章规定的物权保护方式,可以单独适用,也可以根据权利被侵害的情形合并适用。
    侵害物权,除承担民事责任外,违反行政管理规定的,依法承担行政责任;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任。
Part 2: Ownership
第二编  所有权
Chapter 4: General Stipulations
第四章  一般规定
Article 39    Owners of immovables or movables shall be entitled to possess, use, benefit from and dispose of the immovables or movables according to law.
     第三十九条  所有权人对自己的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。
Article 40    On their own immovables or movables, owners shall have the right to create usufruct and security interest.  In exercising their rights, the usufructuaries or guarantors shall not impair the rights and interests of the owners. 
     第四十条  所有权人有权在自己的不动产或者动产上设立用益物权和担保物权。用益物权人、担保物权人行使权利,不得损害所有权人的权益。
Article 41    No units or individuals shall be allowed to acquire ownership of the immovables and movables which are exclusively owned by the State as are provided for by law.
     第四十一条  法律规定专属于国家所有的不动产和动产,任何单位和个人不能取得所有权。
Article 42    For public interests, land owned by the collectives, and the houses and other immovables of units and individuals may be expropriated within the limits of power and in compliance with the procedures provided for by law.
Where land owned by the collective is expropriated, such fees as compensations for the land expropriated, subsidies for resettlement and compensations for the attachments and the young crops on land shall be paid in full according to law, and the premiums for social insurance of the farmers whose land is expropriated shall be arranged in order to guarantee their daily lives and safeguard their lawful rights and interests.
Where houses and other immovables of units or individuals are expropriated, compensations for their resettlement shall be paid according to law, and their lawful rights and interests shall be protected; and where the housings of individuals are expropriated, their living conditions shall be guaranteed.
No units or individuals shall embezzle, misappropriate, privately divide, withhold or default on payment of such fees as the compensations for expropriation.
     第四十二条  为了公共利益的需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征收集体所有的土地和单位、个人的房屋及其他不动产。
    征收集体所有的土地,应当依法足额支付土地补偿费、安置补助费、地上附着物和青苗的补偿费等费用,安排被征地农民的社会保障费用,保障被征地农民的生活,维护被征地农民的合法权益。
    征收单位、个人的房屋及其他不动产,应当依法给予拆迁补偿,维护被征收人的合法权益;征收个人住宅的,还应当保障被征收人的居住条件。
    任何单位和个人不得贪污、挪用、私分、截留、拖欠征收补偿费等费用。
Article 43    The State provides cultivated land with special protection through strictly restricting the transformation of the farmland into land for construction and keeping under control the total amount of land used for construction. No land owned by the collectives shall be expropriated in violation of the limits of power and in compliance with the procedures as provided for by law.
     第四十三条  国家对耕地实行特殊保护,严格限制农用地转为建设用地,控制建设用地总量。不得违反法律规定的权限和程序征收集体所有的土地。
Article 44    In order to meet such urgent needs as rushing to rescue or providing disaster relief, the immovables or movables of units or individuals may be requisitioned within the limits of power and in compliance with the procedures as provided for by law. After the use of the requisitioned immovables or movables, they shall be returned to the units or individuals whose immovables or movables are requisitioned.  Where the immovables or movables of units or individuals are requisitioned or if they are damaged or lost thereafter, compensations shall be made therefor.
     第四十四条  因抢险、救灾等紧急需要,依照法律规定的权限和程序可以征用单位、个人的不动产或者动产。被征用的不动产或者动产使用后,应当返还被征用人。单位、个人的不动产或者动产被征用或者征用后毁损、灭失的,应当给予补偿。
Chapter 5: Ownership of the State, the Collective and the Individual Person
第五章  国家所有权和集体所有权、私人所有权
Article 45    The property owned by the State as is provided for by law belongs to the State, that is, the entire people.
The State Council shall exercise ownership of State-owned property on behalf of the State; and where laws provide for otherwise, the provisions there shall prevail.
     第四十五条  法律规定属于国家所有的财产,属于国家所有即全民所有。
    国有财产由国务院代表国家行使所有权;法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 46    All mineral resources, waters and sea areas belong to the State.
     第四十六条  矿藏、水流、海域属于国家所有。
Article 47    Land in the cities belongs to the State. Land in the rural and suburban areas which belongs to the State as is provided for by law is owned by the State.
     第四十七条  城市的土地,属于国家所有。法律规定属于国家所有的农村和城市郊区的土地,属于国家所有。
Article 48    Such natural resources as forests, mountains, grasslands, wasteland and tidal flats belong to the State, except where they belong to the collectives as is provided for by law.
     第四十八条  森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等自然资源,属于国家所有,但法律规定属于集体所有的除外。
Article 49    All resources of the wildlife that belong to the State, as is provided for by law, are owned by the State.
     第四十九条  法律规定属于国家所有的野生动植物资源,属于国家所有。
Article 50    All resources of radio-frequency spectrum belong to the State.
     第五十条  无线电频谱资源属于国家所有。
Article 51    All cultural relics that belong to the State, as is provided for by law, are owned by the State.
     第五十一条  法律规定属于国家所有的文物,属于国家所有。
Article 52    All assets for national defense belong to the State.
All infrastructures such as railways, highways, power facilities, telecommunications facilities and oil and gas pipelines that belong to the State in accordance with the provisions of law are owned by the State.
     第五十二条  国防资产属于国家所有。
    铁路、公路、电力设施、电信设施和油气管道等基础设施,依照法律规定为国家所有的,属于国家所有。
Article 53    Government departments are entitled to possess and use the immovables and movables directly under their control and to dispose of them in accordance with laws and the relevant regulations of the State Council.
     第五十三条  国家机关对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定处分的权利。
Article 54    Institutions sponsored by the State shall have the right to possess and use the immovables and movables directly under their control and to benefit from and dispose of them in accordance with laws and the relevant regulations of the State Council.
     第五十四条  国家举办的事业单位对其直接支配的不动产和动产,享有占有、使用以及依照法律和国务院的有关规定收益、处分的权利。
Article 55    With respect to enterprises invested by the State, the State Council or the local people's governments shall, in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, perform the duties of the investors on behalf of the State and enjoy the rights and interests of the investors.
     第五十五条  国家出资的企业,由国务院、地方人民政府依照法律、行政法规规定分别代表国家履行出资人职责,享有出资人权益。
Article 56    The property owned by the State shall be protected by law, and illegal possession, looting, privately dividing, withholding or destruction of such property by any units or individuals shall be prohibited.
     第五十六条  国家所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何单位和个人侵占、哄抢、私分、截留、破坏。
Article 57    The authority performing the duties of administration and supervision over State-owned property and its staff members shall, according to law, exercise vigorous administration and supervision over State-owned property, promote the preservation and increase of the value of such property, and prevent its loss; and where losses are caused to State-owned property due to their abuse of power or dereliction of their duties, they shall bear legal liability according to law.
Where, in violation of the provisions governing the management of State-owned property, losses are caused to such property due to transferring it at a low price, privately dividing it in conspiracy with other persons, creating security on it without authorization or by other means in the course of enterprise restructuring, merger or division, affiliated transaction, etc., legal liability shall be borne according to law.
     第五十七条  履行国有财产管理、监督职责的机构及其工作人员,应当依法加强对国有财产的管理、监督,促进国有财产保值增值,防止国有财产损失;滥用职权,玩忽职守,造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。
    违反国有财产管理规定,在企业改制、合并分立、关联交易等过程中,低价转让、合谋私分、擅自担保或者以其他方式造成国有财产损失的,应当依法承担法律责任。
Article 58    The immovables and movables owned by the collective include the following:
(1) the land, forests, mountains, grasslands, wasteland and tidal flats belong to the collective, as is provided for by law;
(2) the buildings, production equipment, water conservancy facilities of farmland that are owned by the collective;
(3) the educational, scientific, cultural, public health and sports facilities that are owned by the collective; and
(4) other immovables and movables owned by the collective.
     第五十八条  集体所有的不动产和动产包括:
    (一)法律规定属于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂;
    (二)集体所有的建筑物、生产设施、农田水利设施;
    (三)集体所有的教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育等设施;
    (四)集体所有的其他不动产和动产。
Article 59    The immovables and movables collectively owned by the farmers belong to the members of the collective.
The following matters shall be subject to decision by the members of a given collective in accordance with the statutory procedure:
(1) plans for contracting of land, and subcontracting of land to other units or to individuals other than those belonging to the collective;
(2) adjustment to be made to the contracted land by the individual persons among themselves who have the right to land contractual management;
(3) methods for the use and distribution of such fees as compensations paid for land;
(4) such matters as change in ownership of the enterprises invested by the collective; and
(5) other matters as provided for by law.
     第五十九条  农民集体所有的不动产和动产,属于本集体成员集体所有。
    下列事项应当依照法定程序经本集体成员决定:
    (一)土地承包方案以及将土地发包给本集体以外的单位或者个人承包;
    (二)个别土地承包经营权人之间承包地的调整;
    (三)土地补偿费等费用的使用、分配办法;
    (四)集体出资的企业的所有权变动等事项;
    (五)法律规定的其他事项。
Article 60    With respect to the land, forests, mountains, grasslands, wasteland, tidal flats, etc. owned by the collective, the right of their ownership shall be exercised in accordance with the following provisions:
(1) For those owned by the collective of farmers of a village, the collective economic organization of the village or the villagers' committee shall exercise the right of ownership on behalf of the collective;
(2) For those respectively owned by two or more collectives of farmers within a village, the collective economic organizations or villagers' teams concerned within the village shall exercise the right of ownership on behalf of the collectives; and
(3) For those owned by the collective of farmers of a town or township, the collective economic organization of the town or township shall exercise the right of ownership on behalf of the collective.
     第六十条  对于集体所有的土地和森林、山岭、草原、荒地、滩涂等,依照下列规定行使所有权:
    (一)属于村农民集体所有的,由村集体经济组织或者村民委员会代表集体行使所有权;
    (二)分别属于村内两个以上农民集体所有的,由村内各该集体经济组织或者村民小组代表集体行使所有权;
    (三)属于乡镇农民集体所有的,由乡镇集体经济组织代表集体行使所有权。
Article 61    With respect to the immovables and movables owned by a collective of a town or township, the said collective shall, in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, have the right to possess, use, benefit from and dispose of such immovables and movables.
     第六十一条  城镇集体所有的不动产和动产,依照法律、行政法规的规定由本集体享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。
Article 62    The collective economic organization or the villagers' committee or team shall, in accordance with laws and administrative regulations as well as the articles of association, village rules and farmers' agreements, make the position of the collective property known to the members of the collective.
     第六十二条  集体经济组织或者村民委员会、村民小组应当依照法律、行政法规以及章程、村规民约向本集体成员公布集体财产的状况。
Article 63    The property owned by the collective shall be protected by law, and illegal possession, looting, privately sharing, and destruction of such property by any units or individuals shall be prohibited.
Where a decision made by a collective economic organization, or villagers' committee or by the leading person of the organization or committee encroaches on the lawful rights and interests of the members of the collective, the said members may apply to a people's court for reversing such decision.
     第六十三条  集体所有的财产受法律保护,禁止任何单位和个人侵占、哄抢、私分、破坏。
    集体经济组织、村民委员会或者其负责人作出的决定侵害集体成员合法权益的,受侵害的集体成员可以请求人民法院予以撤销。
Article 64    All individual persons shall be entitled to enjoy ownership of such immovables and movables as their lawful incomes, houses, articles for daily use, tools of production, and raw and semi-finished materials.
     第六十四条  私人对其合法的收入、房屋、生活用品、生产工具、原材料等不动产和动产享有所有权。
Article 65    The lawful savings and investments of individual persons and the gains derived there from are protected by law.
The State protects, in accordance with the provisions of law, the right of individual persons to inheritance and their other lawful rights and interests.
     第六十五条  私人合法的储蓄、投资及其收益受法律保护。
    国家依照法律规定保护私人的继承权及其他合法权益。
Article 66    The lawful property of individual persons is protected by law, and illegal possession, looting and destruction of such property by any units or individuals are prohibited.
     第六十六条  私人的合法财产受法律保护,禁止任何单位和个人侵占、哄抢、破坏。
Article 67    The State, the collective or the individual person may, in accordance with law, invest to establish companies with limited liability, companies limited by shares or other enterprises. Where the immovables or movables owned by the State, the collective or the individual person are invested in enterprises, the investor shall have such rights as receiving benefits derived from the assets, making major decisions and selecting managers, and shall perform it/his duties, in accordance with what is agreed upon or in proportion to the amount of investment.
     第六十七条  国家、集体和私人依法可以出资设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司或者其他企业。国家、集体和私人所有的不动产或者动产,投到企业的,由出资人按照约定或者出资比例享有资产收益、重大决策以及选择经营管理者等权利并履行义务。
Article 68    An enterprise legal person has the right to possess, use, benefit from and dispose of his immovables and movables in accordance with laws and administrative regulations as well as the articles of association.
The rights enjoyed by legal persons other than enterprise legal persons with respect to their immovables and movables shall be governed by the provisions of relevant laws and administrative regulations as well as the articles of association.
     第六十八条  企业法人对其不动产和动产依照法律、行政法规以及章程享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。
    企业法人以外的法人,对其不动产和动产的权利,适用有关法律、行政法规以及章程的规定。
Article 69    The immovables and movables owned by public organizations according to law are protected by law.
     第六十九条  社会团体依法所有的不动产和动产,受法律保护。
Chapter 6: Condominium Right of Property Owners
第六章  业主的建筑物区分所有权
Article 70    Property owners shall enjoy ownership of the special parts within a building, such as the residential units and the units for business purposes and shall enjoy the right to share and jointly manage the common parts other than the special parts.
     第七十条  业主对建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房等专有部分享有所有权,对专有部分以外的共有部分享有共有和共同管理的权利。
Article 71    An owner shall enjoy the rights of possession, use, benefiting from and disposition of the part exclusively owned by him within a building. In exercising his rights, the owner shall not endanger the safety of the building or infringe on the lawful rights and interests of other owners therein.
     第七十一条  业主对其建筑物专有部分享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权利。业主行使权利不得危及建筑物的安全,不得损害其他业主的合法权益。
Article 72    An owner shall enjoy rights and fulfill obligations with respect to the common parts of a building other than the special parts, and shall not refuse to fulfill the obligations by forfeiting his rights.
When an owner transfers a residential unit or a unit for business purposes owned by him within a building, his right to share and jointly manage the common parts shall be transferred along.
     第七十二条  业主对建筑物专有部分以外的共有部分,享有权利,承担义务;不得以放弃权利不履行义务。
    业主转让建筑物内的住宅、经营性用房,其对共有部分享有的共有和共同管理的权利一并转让。
Article 73    The roads in the district of a building shall be jointly owned by all the owners, with the exception of the public roads belonging to a city or township. The greens within the district of a building shall be jointly owned by all the owners, with the exception of the public greens belonging to a city or township, and the greens belonging to individual persons, as is clearly indicated. Other public spaces, public facilities and houses or rooms used for property management within the district of a building shall be jointly owned by all the owners.
     第七十三条  建筑区划内的道路,属于业主共有,但属于城镇公共道路的除外。建筑区划内的绿地,属于业主共有,但属于城镇公共绿地或者明示属于个人的除外。建筑区划内的其他公共场所、公用设施和物业服务用房,属于业主共有。
Article 74    In the district of a building, the designed parking places and garages shall first be used to meet the need of the owners.
In the district of a building, ownership of the designed parking places and garages shall be decided on through agreement among the parties concerned, by such means as selling, giving away as gifts, and leasing.
The roads and other places commonly owned by all the owners which are used for parking vehicles shall be jointly owned by all the owners.
     第七十四条  建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库应当首先满足业主的需要。
    建筑区划内,规划用于停放汽车的车位、车库的归属,由当事人通过出售、附赠或者出租等方式约定。
    占用业主共有的道路或者其他场地用于停放汽车的车位,属于业主共有。
Article 75    The owners may form an owners' assembly and elect an owners' committee.
The department concerned of the local people's government shall give guidance and assistance to the formation of an owners' assembly and the election of an owners' committee.
     第七十五条  业主可以设立业主大会,选举业主委员会。
    地方人民政府有关部门应当对设立业主大会和选举业主委员会给予指导和协助。
Article 76    The following matters shall be decided on by all the owners:
(1) formation and revision of the rules of procedure of the owners' assembly;
(2) formation and revision of the rules and agreement on managing the buildings and the attached facilities;
(3) election of the owners' committee or replacement of its members;
(4) employment or removal of the property management service or other managers;
(5) raising and use of funds for the maintenance of a building and its attached facilities;
(6) renovation and reconstruction of a building and its attached facilities; and
(7) other major matters relating to joint ownership and joint management rights.
For decision on the matters specified in Subparagraphs (5) and (6) of the preceding paragraph, an agreement shall be reached by the owners whose ownership of the exclusive parts within the building in question accounts for two-thirds or more of the total construction area of the building and who account for two-thirds or more of the total number of the owners. For decision on the rest of the matters specified in the preceding paragraph, an agreement shall be reached by the owners whose ownership of the exclusive parts in the building accounts for more than half of the total construction area of the building and who account for more than half of the total number of the owners.
     第七十六条  下列事项由业主共同决定:
    (一)制定和修改业主大会议事规则;
    (二)制定和修改建筑物及其附属设施的管理规约;
    (三)选举业主委员会或者更换业主委员会成员;
    (四)选聘和解聘物业服务企业或者其他管理人;
    (五)筹集和使用建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金;
    (六)改建、重建建筑物及其附属设施;
    (七)有关共有和共同管理权利的其他重大事项。
    决定前款第五项和第六项规定的事项,应当经专有部分占建筑物总面积三分之二以上的业主且占总人数三分之二以上的业主同意。决定前款其他事项,应当经专有部分占建筑物总面积过半数的业主且占总人数过半数的业主同意。
Article 77    No owners may, in violation of the relevant laws, regulations or the management rules and agreements, turn a residential unit into a unit for business purposes. If an owner intends to do so, he shall, in addition to observing the relevant laws, regulations and the management rules and agreements, obtain the consent of the interested owners.
     第七十七条  业主不得违反法律、法规以及管理规约,将住宅改变为经营性用房。业主将住宅改变为经营性用房的,除遵守法律、法规以及管理规约外,应当经有利害关系的业主同意。
Article 78    The decisions of the owners' assembly or the owners' committee shall be binding to all the owners.
If a decision made by the owners' assembly or the owners' committee infringes on the lawful rights and interests of an owner, the said owner may apply to a people's court for voiding of the decision.
     第七十八条  业主大会或者业主委员会的决定,对业主具有约束力。
    业主大会或者业主委员会作出的决定侵害业主合法权益的,受侵害的业主可以请求人民法院予以撤销。
Article 79    The funds for maintenance of a building and its attached facilities shall belong to all the owners, which, upon their common decision, may be used for maintaining and repairing the common parts such as the elevators and water tanks. The raising and use of such funds shall be made public.
     第七十九条  建筑物及其附属设施的维修资金,属于业主共有。经业主共同决定,可以用于电梯、水箱等共有部分的维修。维修资金的筹集、使用情况应当公布。
Article 80    The apportioning of the expenses for a building and its attached facilities and the distribution of benefits therefrom shall follow the agreement reached; if there is no such agreement or the agreement is unclear, such apportioning and distribution shall be determined on the basis of the ratio of the area of the exclusive parts an owner owns to the total construction area of the building.
     第八十条  建筑物及其附属设施的费用,分摊、收益分配等事项,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照业主专有部分占建筑物总面积的比例确定。
Article 81    Owners may manage the building and its affixtures by themselves, or entrust the matter to a property management service or other managers.
The owners shall, according to law, have the right to replace the property management service or other managers employed by the developer.
     第八十一条  业主可以自行管理建筑物及其附属设施,也可以委托物业服务企业或者其他管理人管理。
    对建设单位聘请的物业服务企业或者其他管理人,业主有权依法更换。
Article 82    The property management service or other managers shall manage the building and its affixtures within the district of the building, as entrusted by the owners, and shall be subject to supervision by the owners.
     第八十二条  物业服务企业或者其他管理人根据业主的委托管理建筑区划内的建筑物及其附属设施,并接受业主的监督。
Article 83    Owners shall observe the relevant laws and regulations and the management rules and agreements.
With respect to a person who randomly discards garbage, discharges pollutants, makes noises, keeps animals in violation of regulations, erects structures against rules, occupies passages, refuses to pay property management fees, etc., thus infringing on the lawful rights and interests of another person, the owners' assembly and the owners' committee shall, according to the relevant laws and regulations and the management rules and agreements, have the right to require the person to discontinue such infringement, eliminate the hazards, clear away the obstructions and compensate the losses entailed. The owner whose lawful rights and interests are infringed on may bring a lawsuit to the people's court against such acts.
     第八十三条  业主应当遵守法律、法规以及管理规约。
    业主大会和业主委员会,对任意弃置垃圾、排放污染物或者噪声、违反规定饲养动物、违章搭建、侵占通道、拒付物业费等损害他人合法权益的行为,有权依照法律、法规以及管理规约,要求行为人停止侵害、消除危险、排除妨害、赔偿损失。业主对侵害自己合法权益的行为,可以依法向人民法院提起诉讼。
Chapter 7: Neighboring Relations
第七章  相邻关系
Article 84    Owners of neighboring immovables shall properly deal with their neighboring relations in adherence to the principles of conduciveness to production, convenience for daily lives, unity and mutual help, and fairness and rationality.
     第八十四条  不动产的相邻权利人应当按照有利生产、方便生活、团结互助、公平合理的原则,正确处理相邻关系。
Article 85    Where there are laws or regulations governing neighboring relations, the provisions there shall prevail; otherwise, such relations shall be dealt with in accordance with local customs.
     第八十五条  法律、法规对处理相邻关系有规定的,依照其规定;法律、法规没有规定的,可以按照当地习惯。
Article 86    An owner of immovables shall provide the necessary convenience to a neighboring obligee in the use or discharge of water.
The natural flowing waters shall be reasonably distributed among the neighboring obligees of immovables. The direction of natural flow shall be set store by where discharge of such water is concerned.
     第八十六条  不动产权利人应当为相邻权利人用水、排水提供必要的便利。
    对自然流水的利用,应当在不动产的相邻权利人之间合理分配。对自然流水的排放,应当尊重自然流向。
Article 87    Where a neighboring obligee has to use for passage, etc. the land of an obligee of immovables, the latter shall provide the necessary convenience to the former.
     第八十七条  不动产权利人对相邻权利人因通行等必须利用其土地的,应当提供必要的便利。
Article 88    Where an obligee of immovables, for constructing or maintaining a building, or laying wires, cables, or pipelines for water, heating or gas, has to use the neighboring land or building, the owner of the said land or building shall provide the necessary convenience accordingly.
     第八十八条  不动产权利人因建造、修缮建筑物以及铺设电线、电缆、水管、暖气和燃气管线等必须利用相邻土地、建筑物的,该土地、建筑物的权利人应当提供必要的便利。
Article 89    In construction of a building, ventilation, light and sunshine of the neighboring building shall not be blocked in violation of the relevant construction standards of the State.
     第八十九条  建造建筑物,不得违反国家有关工程建设标准,妨碍相邻建筑物的通风、采光和日照。
Article 90    An obligee of immovables shall not, in violation of State regulations, discard solid waste or discharge hazardous substances, such as air and water pollutants, noises, and optical and electromagnetic radiation.
     第九十条  不动产权利人不得违反国家规定弃置固体废物,排放大气污染物、水污染物、噪声、光、电磁波辐射等有害物质。
Article 91    When digging, constructing a building, laying pipelines or installing facilities, etc., an owner of immovables shall not endanger the neighboring immovables.
     第九十一条  不动产权利人挖掘土地、建造建筑物、铺设管线以及安装设备等,不得危及相邻不动产的安全。
Article 92    When making use of the neighboring immovables for the drawing or draining off of water, for passage or for laying of pipelines, an owner of immovables shall do the best to avoid causing damage to the owner of the neighboring land; if damage is caused, he shall compensate for the damage.
     第九十二条  不动产权利人因用水、排水、通行、铺设管线等利用相邻不动产的,应当尽量避免对相邻的不动产权利人造成损害;造成损害的,应当给予赔偿。
Chapter 8: Co-ownership
第八章  共有
Article 93    Immovables or movables may be co-owned by two or more units or individuals. Co-ownership consists of shared ownership and joint ownership.
     第九十三条  不动产或者动产可以由两个以上单位、个人共有。共有包括按份共有和共同共有。
Article 94    Persons who share the ownership of immovables or movables shall enjoy the ownership in proportion to the amount of their shares.
     第九十四条  按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产按照其份额享有所有权。
Article 95    Persons who jointly own immovables or movables shall enjoy the ownership jointly.
     第九十五条  共同共有人对共有的不动产或者动产共同享有所有权。
Article 96    Co-owners shall manage the immovables or movables they own as agreed upon; if there is no agreement or the agreement is indefinite in this respect, all the co-owners shall have the right and duty of management. 
     第九十六条  共有人按照约定管理共有的不动产或者动产;没有约定或者约定不明确的,各共有人都有管理的权利和义务。
Article 97    Disposing of or making major repairs to the co-owned immovables or movables shall be subject to agreement reached by the co-owners who possess two-thirds or more of the total shares or by all of the joint owners, except where the owners agree otherwise.
     第九十七条  处分共有的不动产或者动产以及对共有的不动产或者动产作重大修缮的,应当经占份额三分之二以上的按份共有人或者全体共同共有人同意,但共有人之间另有约定的除外。
Article 98    The fees for managing what is co-owned and other expenses shall be paid according to agreement; if there is no such agreement or the agreement is indefinite in this respect, they shall be paid by the persons who share the ownership in proportion to the amounts of their respective shares, or jointly paid by the joint owners.
     第九十八条  对共有物的管理费用以及其他负担,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人按照其份额负担,共同共有人共同负担。
Article 99    Where the co-owners have agreed not to sever the immovables or movables owned by them in order to maintain the co-ownership, such agreement shall be complied with; however, if a co-owner has major reasons for severing them, he may make a request for severance; where there is no such agreement or the agreement is indefinite in this respect, a person who shares the ownership may make a request for severance at any time, while a joint owner may do so if the basis for joint ownership no longer exists or he has major reasons for severance. Where the severance causes losses to the other co-owners, they shall be compensated for the losses.
     第九十九条  共有人约定不得分割共有的不动产或者动产,以维持共有关系的,应当按照约定,但共有人有重大理由需要分割的,可以请求分割;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按份共有人可以随时请求分割,共同共有人在共有的基础丧失或者有重大理由需要分割时可以请求分割。因分割对其他共有人造成损害的,应当给予赔偿。
Article 100    The co-owners may decide on the method for severance through consultation. If they fail to reach an agreement, and the immovables or movables owned by them can be severed and its value will not be reduced because of such severance, the actual property shall be severed; if it is difficult to sever the property or its value will be reduced because of such severance, the severance shall be made after the property is converted into money, or auctioned, or sold.
If the immovables or movables of a co-owner obtains from the severance is flawed, the other co-owners shall share the losses.
     第一百条  共有人可以协商确定分割方式。达不成协议,共有的不动产或者动产可以分割并且不会因分割减损价值的,应当对实物予以分割;难以分割或者因分割会减损价值的,应当对折价或者拍卖、变卖取得的价款予以分割。
    共有人分割所得的不动产或者动产有瑕疵的,其他共有人应当分担损失。
Article 101    A co-owner who shares ownership of the immovables or movables shall have the right to transfer his own share. The other co-owners shall have the priority to purchase under equal conditions.
     第一百零一条  按份共有人可以转让其享有的共有的不动产或者动产份额。其他共有人在同等条件下享有优先购买的权利。
Article 102    In external relations, the co-owners shall have joint and several claims arising from the immovables or movables owned by them and bear joint and several liability for the debts arising likewise, except where laws provide otherwise or where a third party is aware that the co-owners are not associated in the aftersaid manner; in internal relations, unless otherwise agreed upon by the co-owners, the co-owners who share the ownership shall enjoy the claims and bear liability for the debts in proportion to the amounts of their respective shares, while the joint owners shall jointly enjoy the claims and bear liability for the debts. Where a person who shares ownership pays debts in excess of his share, he shall have the right to recourse from the other co-owners.
     第一百零二条  因共有的不动产或者动产产生的债权债务,在对外关系上,共有人享有连带债权、承担连带债务,但法律另有规定或者第三人知道共有人不具有连带债权债务关系的除外;在共有人内部关系上,除共有人另有约定外,按份共有人按照份额享有债权、承担债务,共同共有人共同享有债权、承担债务。偿还债务超过自己应当承担份额的按份共有人,有权向其他共有人追偿。
Article 103    Where the co-owners fail to reach an agreement either on shared or on joint ownership of the immovables or movables, or the agreement reached is indefinite in this respect, the ownership shall be deemed to be shared ownership, unless the co-owners are of a family or have other relations.
     第一百零三条  共有人对共有的不动产或者动产没有约定为按份共有或者共同共有,或者约定不明确的,除共有人具有家庭关系等外,视为按份共有。
Article 104    Where the shares of immovables or movables are not agreed upon among the persons who share the ownership, or the agreement reached is indefinite in this respect, their shares shall be determined on the basis of the amounts of their respective capital contributions; if it is difficult to determine the amounts of capital contributions, the immovables or movables shall be deemed to be shared equally among them.
     第一百零四条  按份共有人对共有的不动产或者动产享有的份额,没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照出资额确定;不能确定出资额的,视为等额享有。
Article 105    Where two or more entities or individuals jointly enjoy usufructs or security interest, the provisions in this Chapter shall be applied mutatis mutandis.
     第一百零五条  两个以上单位、个人共同享有用益物权、担保物权的,参照本章规定。
Chapter 9: Special Provisions on Acquirement of Ownership
第九章  所有权取得的特别规定
Article 106    Where a person transfers to a transferee immovables or movables which he has no right to dispose of, the owner shall have the right to recover them; except where otherwise provided for by law, the transferee shall acquire ownership of the said immovables or movables under one of the following circumstances:
(1) The transferee is in good faith when the said immovables or movables are transferred to him;
(2) The transfer is made at a reasonable price; or
(3) The said immovables or movables have duely been registered as is required by law, or have been delivered to the transferee where no registration is required.
Where a transferee acquires the ownership of the immovables or movables in accordance with the provisions in the preceding paragraph, the original owner shall have the right to request the person who has no right of disposition to compensate for the losses.
Where a party acquires other property rights in good faith, the preceding two paragraphs shall be applied mutatis mutandis.
     第一百零六条  无处分权人将不动产或者动产转让给受让人的,所有权人有权追回;除法律另有规定外,符合下列情形的,受让人取得该不动产或者动产的所有权:
    (一)受让人受让该不动产或者动产时是善意的;
    (二)以合理的价格转让;
    (三)转让的不动产或者动产依照法律规定应当登记的已经登记,不需要登记的已经交付给受让人。
    受让人依照前款规定取得不动产或者动产的所有权的,原所有权人有权向无处分权人请求赔偿损失。
    当事人善意取得其他物权的,参照前两款规定。
Article 107    An owner or any other obligee shall have the right to recover a lost-and-found thing. Where the thing comes to be possessed by another person through transfer, the obligee shall have the right to request the person who has no right of disposition to compensate for the losses or, within two years from the date he becomes, or ought to become, aware of the transferee, request the transferee to return the lost thing, however, if the lost thing is purchased by the transferee at auction or from a qualified seller, the obligee shall, when requesting the transferee to return the original thing, compensate the transferee for the expenses the latter has paid for the thing. After the obligee compensates the transferee for the expenses, he shall have the right to recover the payment he has made from the person who has no right of disposition.
     第一百零七条  所有权人或者其他权利人有权追回遗失物。该遗失物通过转让被他人占有的,权利人有权向无处分权人请求损害赔偿,或者自知道或者应当知道受让人之日起二年内向受让人请求返还原物,但受让人通过拍卖或者向具有经营资格的经营者购得该遗失物的,权利人请求返还原物时应当支付受让人所付的费用。权利人向受让人支付所付费用后,有权向无处分权人追偿。
Article 108    After a bona fide transferee acquires a piece of movables, the rights previously attached to the said piece shall extinguish, unless where the bona fide transferee is or ought to be aware of the attached rights at the time of transfer of the piece.
     第一百零八条  善意受让人取得动产后,该动产上的原有权利消灭,但善意受让人在受让时知道或者应当知道该权利的除外。
Article 109    A person who finds a lost thing shall return it to the obligee. The finder shall, in a timely manner, give a notice to the obligee asking him to take it back, or deliver it to the public security organ or relevant departments.
     第一百零九条  拾得遗失物,应当返还权利人。拾得人应当及时通知权利人领取,或者送交公安等有关部门。
Article 110    Where the relevant department that receives a found thing knows who the obligee is, it shall, without delay, give a notice to the obligee to notify the obligee asking him to take the thing back; otherwise, it shall publish a notice of the finding of the lost thing without delay.
     第一百一十条  有关部门收到遗失物,知道权利人的,应当及时通知其领取;不知道的,应当及时发布招领公告。
Article 111    Before a finder delivers a found thing to the relevant department and before the lost thing is taken back from the department, both the finder and the department shall safekeep the thing. If, the thing in his or its safekeeping is damaged, destroyed or lost intentionally or through gross negligence, he or it shall bear civil liability therefor.
     第一百一十一条  拾得人在遗失物送交有关部门前,有关部门在遗失物被领取前,应当妥善保管遗失物。因故意或者重大过失致使遗失物毁损、灭失的,应当承担民事责任。
Article 112    When an obligee goes to take back the thing he lost, he shall pay to the finder or the relevant department the necessary expenses entailed by safekeeping, etc.
Where an obligee offers a reward for the finding of the thing he lost, he shall fulfill his obligation as promised when taking the thing back.
Where a finder illegally takes into his own possession a lost thing, he shall have no right to request the expenses paid for the safekeeping of the thing, nor shall he have the right to request the obligee to fulfill the obligation as promised.
     第一百一十二条  权利人领取遗失物时,应当向拾得人或者有关部门支付保管遗失物等支出的必要费用。
    权利人悬赏寻找遗失物的,领取遗失物时应当按照承诺履行义务。
    拾得人侵占遗失物的,无权请求保管遗失物等支出的费用,也无权请求权利人按照承诺履行义务。
Article 113    A lost thing shall belong to the State if no one goes to claim it within six months from the date the notice of the finding of the thing is published.
     第一百一十三条  遗失物自发布招领公告之日起六个月内无人认领的,归国家所有。
Article 114    The provisions governing the finding of lost things shall be applied mutatis mutandis to the finding of drift-stuff or buried or hidden things. Where the laws such as the Law on Protection of Cultural Relics provide for otherwise, the provisions there shall prevail.
     第一百一十四条  拾得漂流物、发现埋藏物或者隐藏物的,参照拾得遗失物的有关规定。文物保护法等法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 115    Where the principal part of a thing is transferred, the ancillaries shall be transferred along with it, except where the parties concerned agree otherwise.
     第一百一十五条  主物转让的,从物随主物转让,但当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 116    The natural fruits of a thing shall go to the owner; if there are both owner and usufructuary, the fruits shall go to the usufructuary. Where the parties concerned agree otherwise, their agreement shall prevail.
The statutory fruits of a thing shall go to the party as agreed upon if there is an agreement between the parties concerned; if there is no such agreement or the agreement in this respect is indefinite, the fruits shall be acquired according to the customs of transaction.
     第一百一十六条  天然孳息,由所有权人取得;既有所有权人又有用益物权人的,由用益物权人取得。当事人另有约定的,按照约定。
    法定孳息,当事人有约定的,按照约定取得;没有约定或者约定不明确的,按照交易习惯取得。
Part 3: Usufructs
Chapter 10: General Stipulations
第三编  用益物权
第十章  一般规定
Article 117    A usufructuary shall, according to law, have the right to possess, use and benefit from the immovables or movables owned by another.
     第一百一十七条  用益物权人对他人所有的不动产或者动产,依法享有占有、使用和收益的权利。
Article 118    Units or individuals may, according to law, possess, use and benefit from the natural resources which are owned by the State, or owned by the State but used by the collective, or owned by the collective as stipulated by law.
     第一百一十八条  国家所有或者国家所有由集体使用以及法律规定属于集体所有的自然资源,单位、个人依法可以占有、使用和收益。
Article 119    The State shall apply a system of compensated use of natural resources, unless otherwise stipulated by law.
     第一百一十九条  国家实行自然资源有偿使用制度,但法律另有规定的除外。
Article 120    In exercising his rights, the usufructuary shall observe the provisions of law governing the protection and reasonable exploitation and utilization of resources. The owner shall not interfere with the exercise of rights by the usufrustuary.
     第一百二十条  用益物权人行使权利,应当遵守法律有关保护和合理开发利用资源的规定。所有权人不得干涉用益物权人行使权利。
Article 121    The usufurstuary shall, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 42 and 44 of this Law, get appropriate compensation when his usufruct extinguishes or the exercise of his usufruct is limited due to expropriation or requisition of the immovables or movables.
     第一百二十一条  因不动产或者动产被征收、征用致使用益物权消灭或者影响用益物权行使的,用益物权人有权依照本法第四十二条、第四十四条的规定获得相应补偿。
Article 122    The right to the use of sea areas that is obtained in accordance with law shall be protected by law.
     第一百二十二条  依法取得的海域使用权受法律保护。
Article 123    The rights to prospecting for mineral deposits, mining, water taking, and the rights to the use of waters or tidal flats for aquaculture or fishing, which are obtained in accordance with law, shall be protected by law.
     第一百二十三条  依法取得的探矿权、采矿权、取水权和使用水域、滩涂从事养殖、捕捞的权利受法律保护。
Chapter 11: The Right to Land Contractual Management
第十一章  土地承包经营权
Article 124    Rural collective economic organizations apply the dual management system characterized by the combination of centralized management with decentralized management on the basis of management by households under a contract.
The contractual management system shall, in accordance with law, be applied to the cultivated land, forestlands, grasslands and other land used for agriculture, which are owned collectively by the farmers or by the State but used collectively by the farmers.
     第一百二十四条  农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。
    农民集体所有和国家所有由农民集体使用的耕地、林地、草地以及其他用于农业的土地,依法实行土地承包经营制度。
Article 125    Contractors for the right to land management shall, in accordance with law, have the right to possess, use, and benefit from the cultivated land, forestlands, grasslands, etc. which are under their contractual management, and shall have the right to engage in agricultural production, including crop cultivation, forestry and animal husbandry.
     第一百二十五条  土地承包经营权人依法对其承包经营的耕地、林地、草地等享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权从事种植业、林业、畜牧业等农业生产。
Article 126    The term of contract for cultivated land is 30 years. The term of contract for grasslands ranges from 30 to 50 years. The term of contract for forestlands ranges from 30 to 70 years; and that for forestlands where special trees grow may be extended upon approval by the competent administrative department for forestry under the State Council.
At the expiration of the term of contract stipulated in the preceding paragraph, the contract may be renewed by the contractor for the right to land management in accordance with the relevant regulations of the State.
     第一百二十六条  耕地的承包期为三十年。草地的承包期为三十年至五十年。林地的承包期为三十年至七十年;特殊林木的林地承包期,经国务院林业行政主管部门批准可以延长。
    前款规定的承包期届满,由土地承包经营权人按照国家有关规定继续承包。
Article 127    The right to land contractual management shall be established as of the date the contract for the right to land management becomes valid.
Local people's governments at or above the county level shall issue to the contractors for the right to land management certificates of the right to land contractual management, certificates of the right to use forestlands, or certificates of the right to use grasslands, and shall have them registered to confirm their right to land contractual management.
     第一百二十七条  土地承包经营权自土地承包经营权合同生效时设立。
    县级以上地方人民政府应当向土地承包经营权人发放土地承包经营权证、林权证、草原使用权证,并登记造册,确认土地承包经营权。
Article 128    Contractors for the right to land management shall, in accordance with the provisions of the Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas, have the right to circulate the right to land contractual management by subcontracting, exchanging or transferring the right or by other means. The term of circulation may not exceed the remaining period of the term of a contract. Without approval as granted according to law, no contracted land may be used for non-agricultural development.
     第一百二十八条  土地承包经营权人依照农村土地承包法的规定,有权将土地承包经营权采取转包、互换、转让等方式流转。流转的期限不得超过承包期的剩余期限。未经依法批准,不得将承包地用于非农建设。
Article 129    When contractors for the right to land management exchange or transfer the said right and the parties concerned request registration, they shall apply to the local people's governments at or above the county level for alteration of the registration of the right to land contractual management. Where such registration is lacking, it shall not be used against a bona fide third party.
     第一百二十九条  土地承包经营权人将土地承包经营权互换、转让,当事人要求登记的,应当向县级以上地方人民政府申请土地承包经营权变更登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 130    During the term of contract, the party giving out the contract may not readjust the contracted land.
When the contracted cultivated land or grasslands need to be readjusted appropriately under the special circumstances in which the contracted land or grasslands are seriously damaged due to natural disasters, the matter shall be handled in accordance with the provisions of the Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas, etc.
     第一百三十条  承包期内发包人不得调整承包地。
    因自然灾害严重毁损承包地等特殊情形,需要适当调整承包的耕地和草地的,应当依照农村土地承包法等法律规定办理。
Article 131    During the term of contract, the party giving out the contract may not take back the contracted land. Where the Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas and other laws provide otherwise, the provisions there shall apply.
     第一百三十一条  承包期内发包人不得收回承包地。农村土地承包法等法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
Article 132    Where the contracted land is expropriated, the contractors for the right to land management shall be entitled to corresponding compensation in accordance with the provisions of  the second paragraph of Article 42 of this Law.
     第一百三十二条  承包地被征收的,土地承包经营权人有权依照本法第四十二条第二款的规定获得相应补偿。
Article 133    Where a person enters into a contract for the right to rural land such as barren land through bidding, auction, open consultation or other means, his right to land contractual management may, in accordance with such laws as the Law on Land Contract in Rural Areas and the relevant regulations of the State Council, be circulated through transfer, pooling of rights as shares, mortgage or other means.
     第一百三十三条  通过招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式承包荒地等农村土地,依照农村土地承包法等法律和国务院的有关规定,其土地承包经营权可以转让、入股、抵押或者以其他方式流转。
Article 134    Where contractual management is applied to the land owned by the State which is used for agricultural purposes, the relevant provisions of this Law shall be followed mutatis mutandis.
     第一百三十四条  国家所有的农用地实行承包经营的,参照本法的有关规定。
Chapter 12: The Right to the Use of Land for Construction
第十二章  建设用地使用权
Article 135    A person who enjoys the right to the use of land for construction shall, according to law, possess, use and benefit from the land owned by the State, and shall have the right to use the land for erecting buildings and structures and the facilities attached to them.
     第一百三十五条  建设用地使用权人依法对国家所有的土地享有占有、使用和收益的权利,有权利用该土地建造建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施。
Article 136    The right to the use of land for construction may be separately created on the surface, above or under the ground. The newly created right to the use of land for construction shall not infringe on the usufruct which has already been created thereon.
     第一百三十六条  建设用地使用权可以在土地的地表、地上或者地下分别设立。新设立的建设用地使用权,不得损害已设立的用益物权。
Article 137    The right to the use of land for construction may be created by assignment, allocation or other means.
Where land is used for industrial, commercial, tourist or entertaining purposes, as commodity residences, or for other profit-making purposes, or there are two or more persons who are willing to use the same piece of land, the right to the use of land for construction shall be assigned through bid invitation, auction or other open bidding.
Creation of the right to the use of land for construction through allocation shall strictly be controlled. Creation of the right by such means shall be done in compliance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations governing the purposes of use of land.
     第一百三十七条  设立建设用地使用权,可以采取出让或者划拨等方式。
    工业、商业、旅游、娱乐和商品住宅等经营性用地以及同一土地有两个以上意向用地者的,应当采取招标、拍卖等公开竞价的方式出让。
    严格限制以划拨方式设立建设用地使用权。采取划拨方式的,应当遵守法律、行政法规关于土地用途的规定。
Article 138    Where the right to the use of land for construction is created through bid invitation, auction, agreement or by other means of assignment, the parties shall enter into a contract for assigning the right to the use of land for construction in written form.
A contract for assigning the right to the use of land for construction generally contains the following particulars:
(1)  names and addresses of the parties;
(2)  the boundary and the area of the land;
(3)  the space occupied by the buildings and structures and the facilities attached to them;
(4)  purposes of use of land;
(5)  the period of time for use;
(6)  payment for the assigning and other fees, and the manners of payment; and
(7)  means for settlement of disputes.
     第一百三十八条  采取招标、拍卖、协议等出让方式设立建设用地使用权的,当事人应当采取书面形式订立建设用地使用权出让合同。
    建设用地使用权出让合同一般包括下列条款:
    (一)当事人的名称和住所;
    (二)土地界址、面积等;
    (三)建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用的空间;
    (四)土地用途;
    (五)使用期限;
    (六)出让金等费用及其支付方式;
    (七)解决争议的方法。
Article 139    For creating the right to the use of land for construction, an application for registration of such right shall be made to the registration authority. The right to the use of land for construction shall be deemed to be created as of the time of registration. The registration authority shall issue to the person who is granted the right to the use of land for construction the certificate of the right to the use of land for construction.
     第一百三十九条  设立建设用地使用权的,应当向登记机构申请建设用地使用权登记。建设用地使用权自登记时设立。登记机构应当向建设用地使用权人发放建设用地使用权证书。
Article 140    Persons who enjoy the right to the use of land for construction shall make rational use of the land and shall not change the purposes of use of the land; if the purposes of use need to be changed, the matter shall be subject to approval by relevant administrative departments according to law.
     第一百四十条  建设用地使用权人应当合理利用土地,不得改变土地用途;需要改变土地用途的,应当依法经有关行政主管部门批准。
Article 141    The persons who enjoy the right to the use of land for construction shall, in accordance with the provisions of law and the stipulations in the contract, pay the expenses for assignment and other fees.
     第一百四十一条  建设用地使用权人应当依照法律规定以及合同约定支付出让金等费用。
Article 142    Ownership of the buildings and structures and the facilities attached to them that the person who enjoys the right to the use of land for construction has constructed belongs to the said person, unless there is evidence to prove the contrary.
     第一百四十二条  建设用地使用权人建造的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施的所有权属于建设用地使用权人,但有相反证据证明的除外。
Article 143    A person who enjoys the right to the use of land for construction shall have the right to transfer, exchange, offer as capital contributions, give as a gift or mortgage such right, except where otherwise provided for by law.
     第一百四十三条  建设用地使用权人有权将建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押,但法律另有规定的除外。
Article 144    Where the right to the use of land for construction is transferred, exchanged, offered as capital contributions, given as a gift or mortgaged, the parties shall enter into a contract in written form accordingly. The period of time for use shall be agreed upon by the parties, provided that the remaining period of time for the right to the use of land for construction is not exceeded.
     第一百四十四条  建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资、赠与或者抵押的,当事人应当采取书面形式订立相应的合同。使用期限由当事人约定,但不得超过建设用地使用权的剩余期限。
Article 145    Where the right to the use of land for construction is to be transferred, exchanged, offered as capital contributions, or given as a gift, an application for alteration of registration shall be made to the registration authority.
     第一百四十五条  建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,应当向登记机构申请变更登记。
Article 146    Where the right to the use of land for construction is transferred, exchanged, offered as capital contributions, or given as a gift, the buildings and structures and the facilities attached to them which are attached to the said land shall be disposed of along with it.
     第一百四十六条  建设用地使用权转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,附着于该土地上的建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施一并处分。
Article 147    Where buildings and structures and the facilities attached to them are transferred, exchanged, offered as capital contributions, or given as a gift, the right to the use of the land for construction to which the said buildings and structures and facilities are attached shall be disposed of along with them.
     第一百四十七条  建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施转让、互换、出资或者赠与的,该建筑物、构筑物及其附属设施占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并处分。
Article 148    Where, before the expiration of the period of time for the right to the use of land for construction, the land needs to be taken back for public interests, compensations for the houses and other immovables on the land shall be paid in accordance with the provisions of Article 42 of this Law, and the fees paid for assignment shall appropriately be returned.
     第一百四十八条  建设用地使用权期间届满前,因公共利益需要提前收回该土地的,应当依照本法第四十二条的规定对该土地上的房屋及其他不动产给予补偿,并退还相应的出让金。
Article 149    When the period of time for the right to the use of land for construction of residences expires, it shall automatically be renewed.
Renewal of the period of time for the right to the use of land for nonresidential construction shall be handled in accordance with the provisions of law. Ownership of the houses and other immovables on the said land shall be decided on according to the agreement reached; if there is no agreement or the agreement on the matter is indefinite, it shall be decided in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations.
     第一百四十九条  住宅建设用地使用权期间届满的,自动续期。
    非住宅建设用地使用权期间届满后的续期,依照法律规定办理。该土地上的房屋及其他不动产的归属,有约定的,按照约定;没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照法律、行政法规的规定办理。
Article 150    When the right to the use of land for construction lapses, the assignor shall have his registration cancelled in time. The registration authority shall take back the certificate of the right to the use of land for construction.
     第一百五十条  建设用地使用权消灭的,出让人应当及时办理注销登记。登记机构应当收回建设用地使用权证书。
Article 151    Where land owned by the collective is to be used for construction purposes, the matter shall be handled according to the provisions of the Land Administration Law and of other laws
     第一百五十一条  集体所有的土地作为建设用地的,应当依照土地管理法等法律规定办理。
Chapter 13: The Right to the Use of House Sites
第十三章  宅基地使用权
Article 152    Persons with the right to the use of house sites who, according to law, enjoy the right to possess and use the land owned by the collective, shall have the right to use the land for constructing residences and the facilities to be attached to them according to law.
     第一百五十二条  宅基地使用权人依法对集体所有的土地享有占有和使用的权利,有权依法利用该土地建造住宅及其附属设施。
Article 153    Such laws as the Land Administration Law and the relevant State regulations shall be applicable to the obtaining, exercising and transferring of the right to the use of house sites.
     第一百五十三条  宅基地使用权的取得、行使和转让,适用土地管理法等法律和国家有关规定。
Article 154    When house sites disappear due to natural disasters or other reasons, the right to the use of the house sites extinguishes. New house sites shall be allocated to the villagers who lose their house sites.
     第一百五十四条  宅基地因自然灾害等原因灭失的,宅基地使用权消灭。对失去宅基地的村民,应当重新分配宅基地。
Article 155    When the registered right to the use of house sites is transferred or extinguishes, registration of the change or cancellation of registration shall be handled in a timely manner.
     第一百五十五条  已经登记的宅基地使用权转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。
Chapter 14: Easements
第十四章  地役权
Article 156    Easement holders shall, according to the stipulations in the contract, have the right to use another person's immovable property to get better results from his own immovables.
Another person's immovable property mentioned in the preceding paragraph is the servient estate, and one's own immovables are the dominant estate.
     第一百五十六条  地役权人有权按照合同约定,利用他人的不动产,以提高自己的不动产的效益。
    前款所称他人的不动产为供役地,自己的不动产为需役地。
Article 157    For creating an easement, the parties shall enter into a contract for easement in written form.
The contract for easement generally includes the following particulars:
(1)  names or titles, and domiciles of the parties;
(2)  locations of the servient estate and the dominant estate;
(3)  purposes and means of use;
(4)  the period of time for use;
(5)  fees and the manner of payment; and
(6)  means to be used for settling disputes.
     第一百五十七条  设立地役权,当事人应当采取书面形式订立地役权合同。
    地役权合同一般包括下列条款:
    (一)当事人的姓名或者名称和住所;
    (二)供役地和需役地的位置;
    (三)利用目的和方法;
    (四)利用期限;
    (五)费用及其支付方式;
    (六)解决争议的方法。
Article 158    An easement is created as of the time when the easement contract becomes valid. If the parties request registration, they may apply to the registration authority for registration of easement. Where the registration is lacking, such right may not be used against a bona fide third party.
     第一百五十八条  地役权自地役权合同生效时设立。当事人要求登记的,可以向登记机构申请地役权登记;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 159    The obligee of the servient estate shall, according to what is stipulated in the contract, allow the easement holder to use his land and shall not obstruct the latter from exercising his right.
     第一百五十九条  供役地权利人应当按照合同约定,允许地役权人利用其土地,不得妨害地役权人行使权利。
Article 160    The easement holder shall use the servient estate in conformity with the purposes and means of use as agreed upon in the contract and to lighten as much as possible the restrictions on the property right of the obligee of the servient estate.
     第一百六十条  地役权人应当按照合同约定的利用目的和方法利用供役地,尽量减少对供役地权利人物权的限制。
Article 161    The period of time for an easement shall be agreed upon by the parties, provided that it does not exceed the remaining period for usufructs, such as the right to land contractual management and the right to the use of the land for construction.
     第一百六十一条  地役权的期限由当事人约定,但不得超过土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等用益物权的剩余期限。
Article 162    When the owner of a piece of land who enjoys, or is encumbered with an easement creates a right on the right to land contractual management or the right to the use of house sites, the contractor for the right to land contractual management or the user of the house sites shall continue to enjoy or be encumbered with the created easement.
     第一百六十二条  土地所有权人享有地役权或者负担地役权的,设立土地承包经营权、宅基地使用权时,该土地承包经营权人、宅基地使用权人继续享有或者负担已设立的地役权。
Article 163    If on a piece of land is already created the right to land contractual management, the right to the use of the land for construction or the right to the use of house sites, etc., the owner of the piece of land shall not create any easement without the consent of the usufructuary.
     第一百六十三条  土地上已设立土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权、宅基地使用权等权利的,未经用益物权人同意,土地所有权人不得设立地役权。
Article 164    An easement shall not be transferred separately. When the right to land contractual management or the right to the use of land for construction is transferred, the easement shall be transferred along with it, unless the contract stipulates otherwise.
     第一百六十四条  地役权不得单独转让。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等转让的,地役权一并转让,但合同另有约定的除外。
Article 165    An easement shall not be mortgaged separately. If the right to land contractual management or the right to the use of land for construction is mortgaged, the easement shall be transferred along with it at the time when the mortgage interest is enforced.
     第一百六十五条  地役权不得单独抵押。土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权等抵押的,在实现抵押权时,地役权一并转让。
Article 166    When the dominant estate and part of the right to land contractual management or of the right to the use of land for construction thereon are transferred, if the part to be transferred involves easement, the transferee shall concurrently enjoy the easement.
     第一百六十六条  需役地以及需役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,受让人同时享有地役权。
Article 167    When the servient estate and part of the right to land contractual management or of the right to the use of land for construction thereon are transferred, if the part to be transferred involves easements, the easements shall be binding to the transferee.
     第一百六十七条  供役地以及供役地上的土地承包经营权、建设用地使用权部分转让时,转让部分涉及地役权的,地役权对受让人具有约束力。
Article 168    If an easement holder is under any of the following circumstances, the obligee of the servient estate shall have the right to terminate the easement contract, and the easement extinguishes:
(1) abusing the easement in violation of the provisions of law or the contract; or
(2)  in the case of compensated use of the servient estate, at the expiration of the duration for payment as is agreed upon, failing to pay the fees after two exigents are given within a reasonable time limit.
     第一百六十八条  地役权人有下列情形之一的,供役地权利人有权解除地役权合同,地役权消灭:
    (一)违反法律规定或者合同约定,滥用地役权;
    (二)有偿利用供役地,约定的付款期间届满后在合理期限内经两次催告未支付费用。
Article 169    If a registered easement is altered, transferred or extinguishes, the alteration shall be registered or cancelled in a timely manner.
     第一百六十九条  已经登记的地役权变更、转让或者消灭的,应当及时办理变更登记或者注销登记。
Part 4: Security Interest in Property
Chapter 15: General Stipulations
第四编  担保物权
第十五章  一般规定
Article 170    Unless otherwise stipulated by law, the holder of security interests shall have the priority in having his claim paid if a debtor defaults or if the conditions for enforcement of the said interests, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise.
     第一百七十条  担保物权人在债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,依法享有就担保财产优先受偿的权利,但法律另有规定的除外。
Article 171    Where, in the making of loans, in business transactions or other civil activities, a creditor needs a guarantee to have his claim honored, a security interest may be created in accordance with the provisions of this Law and other laws.
Where a third party provides a guarantee to a creditor for a debtor, the third party may require the debtor to provide him with a counter-guarantee. The relevant provisions of this Law and other laws shall be applicable to counter-guarantee.
     第一百七十一条  债权人在借贷、买卖等民事活动中,为保障实现其债权,需要担保的,可以依照本法和其他法律的规定设立担保物权。
    第三人为债务人向债权人提供担保的,可以要求债务人提供反担保。反担保适用本法和其他法律的规定。
Article 172    For creation of a security interest, a guarantee contract shall be concluded in accordance with the provisions of this Law and other laws. A guarantee contract is an ancillary contract of the principal claim-debt contract. When the principal claim-debt contract is null and void, the guarantee contract shall be null and void accordingly, unless otherwise provided for by law.
After it is confirmed that a guarantee contract is nullified, the debtor, the guarantor and the creditor who are in fault shall, on the merits of each case, bear civil liability respectively.
     第一百七十二条  设立担保物权,应当依照本法和其他法律的规定订立担保合同。担保合同是主债权债务合同的从合同。主债权债务合同无效,担保合同无效,但法律另有规定的除外。
    担保合同被确认无效后,债务人、担保人、债权人有过错的,应当根据其过错各自承担相应的民事责任。
Article 173    The scope of security interest embraces the principal creditor's right and the interest therefrom, penalty, damages and expenses for safekeeping of the property used as security and for enforcing security interest. Where the parties concerned agree otherwise, their agreement shall prevail.
     第一百七十三条  担保物权的担保范围包括主债权及其利息、违约金、损害赔偿金、保管担保财产和实现担保物权的费用。当事人另有约定的,按照约定。
Article 174    In case of damage or destruction, loss or requisition of the mortgaged property during the period of guarantee, the holder of the security interest shall have priority in having his claim paid with the insurance monies, compensations or indemnities. The holder of security interest may also have the insurance monies, compensation payment or indemnities deposited with a third party before the time limit for payment of the guaranteed claim expires.
     第一百七十四条  担保期间,担保财产毁损、灭失或者被征收等,担保物权人可以就获得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等优先受偿。被担保债权的履行期未届满的,也可以提存该保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等。
Article 175    Where a guarantee is provided by a third party, if the creditor permits the debtor to transfer part or all of his debts without the consent of the third party in written form, the guarantor shall not undertake the corresponding suretyship liability.
     第一百七十五条  第三人提供担保,未经其书面同意,债权人允许债务人转移全部或者部分债务的,担保人不再承担相应的担保责任。
Article 176    Where both security and suretyship are provided to guarantee for the same claim, the creditor shall have his claim paid as agreed upon, if the debtor defaults or the conditions for enforcement of the interest, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise; where there is no such agreement or the agreement is indefinite in this respect, if the debtor himself provides property as security, the creditor shall have his claim paid with such property first; where a third party provides property as security, the creditor may either have his claim paid with such property or request the guarantor to undertake the suretyship. After the third party has borne the suretyship, he shall have the right of recourse against the debtor.
     第一百七十六条  被担保的债权既有物的担保又有人的担保的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现担保物权的情形,债权人应当按照约定实现债权;没有约定或者约定不明确,债务人自己提供物的担保的,债权人应当先就该物的担保实现债权;第三人提供物的担保的,债权人可以就物的担保实现债权,也可以要求保证人承担保证责任。提供担保的第三人承担担保责任后,有权向债务人追偿。
Article 177    The security interest shall extinguish under one of following circumstances:
(1) The principal claim extinguishes;
(2) The security interest is enforced;
(3) The creditor waives the security interest; or
(4) Other circumstances provided for by law under which the security interest extinguishes. 
     第一百七十七条  有下列情形之一的,担保物权消灭:
    (一)主债权消灭;
    (二)担保物权实现;
    (三)债权人放弃担保物权;
    (四)法律规定担保物权消灭的其他情形。
Article 178    In case of any inconsistencies between the provisions of the Guarantee Law and of this Law, those of this Law shall prevail.
     第一百七十八条  担保法与本法的规定不一致的,适用本法。
Chapter 16: Interests Obtained from Mortgage
Section 1: General Interest Obtained form Mortgage
第十六章  抵押权
第一节  一般抵押权
Article 179    Where a debtor or a third party, for guaranteeing the payment of debts, mortgages property to a creditor instead of transferring of the possession of such property, if the debtor defaults or the conditions for enforcement of the interest, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise, the creditor shall have priority in having his claim paid with the property.
The debtor or the third party specified in the preceding paragraph is the mortgagor, the creditor specified there is the mortgagee, and the property used as security is mortgaged property.
     第一百七十九条  为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人不转移财产的占有,将该财产抵押给债权人的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就该财产优先受偿。
    前款规定的债务人或者第三人为抵押人,债权人为抵押权人,提供担保的财产为抵押财产。
Article 180    The following property which the debtor or the third party is entitled to dispose of may be mortgaged:
(1) buildings and other attachments on the ground;
(2) the right to the use of land for construction;
(3) the contractual management right to barren land, etc. obtained through bidding, auction, open consultation or other means;
(4) production equipment, raw and semi-finished materials, semi-finished products and finished products;
(5) buildings, vessels and aircraft under construction;
(6) means of transportation; and
(7) other property that is not prohibited from being mortgaged by laws or administrative regulations.
A mortgagor may mortgage all the property specified in the preceding paragraph at the same time.
     第一百八十条  债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列财产可以抵押:
    (一)建筑物和其他土地附着物;
    (二)建设用地使用权;
    (三)以招标、拍卖、公开协商等方式取得的荒地等土地承包经营权;
    (四)生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品;
    (五)正在建造的建筑物、船舶、航空器;
    (六)交通运输工具;
    (七)法律、行政法规未禁止抵押的其他财产。
    抵押人可以将前款所列财产一并抵押。
Article 181    Subject to written agreement between the parties, enterprises, self-employed industrial and commercial households and agricultural producers and distributors may mortgage their existing and anticipated production equipment, raw and semi-finished materials, semi-finished products and finished products, and if the debtor defaults or the conditions for enforcement of the interest, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise, the creditor shall have priority in having his claim paid with the movables. 
     第一百八十一条  经当事人书面协议,企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者可以将现有的以及将有的生产设备、原材料、半成品、产品抵押,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,债权人有权就实现抵押权时的动产优先受偿。
Article 182    Where a building is mortgaged, the right to the use of the land for construction within the area occupied by the building shall be mortgaged along with the building. Where the right to the use of the land for construction is mortgaged, the buildings on the land shall be mortgaged along with that right.
If the mortgagor fails to comply with what is provided for in the preceding paragraph, the property not mortgaged shall be deemed to be mortgaged along with what is mortgaged.
     第一百八十二条  以建筑物抵押的,该建筑物占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。以建设用地使用权抵押的,该土地上的建筑物一并抵押。
    抵押人未依照前款规定一并抵押的,未抵押的财产视为一并抵押。
Article 183    The right to the use of the land for construction enjoyed by a town (township) or village enterprise may not be mortgaged separately. Where workshops and other buildings of a town (township) or village enterprise are mortgaged, the right to the use of the land for construction within the area occupied by the workshops or other buildings shall be mortgaged along with the workshops and other buildings.
     第一百八十三条  乡镇、村企业的建设用地使用权不得单独抵押。以乡镇、村企业的厂房等建筑物抵押的,其占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押。
Article 184    The following property may not be mortgaged:
(1) land ownership;
(2) the right to the use of the land owned by the collective, such as cultivated land, house sites, private plots and private hills, except where otherwise provided for by law;
(3) educational facilities, medical and health facilities and other public welfare facilities of undertakings for public welfare, such as schools, kindergartens and hospitals and public organizations;
(4) property the ownership or right to the use of which is indefinite or controversial;
(5) property sealed up, distrained or placed under custody in accordance with law; and
(6) other property which may not be mortgaged as prescribed by laws and administrative regulations.
     第一百八十四条  下列财产不得抵押:
    (一)土地所有权;
    (二)耕地、宅基地、自留地、自留山等集体所有的土地使用权,但法律规定可以抵押的除外;
    (三)学校、幼儿园、医院等以公益为目的的事业单位、社会团体的教育设施、医疗卫生设施和其他社会公益设施;
    (四)所有权、使用权不明或者有争议的财产;
    (五)依法被查封、扣押、监管的财产;
    (六)法律、行政法规规定不得抵押的其他财产。
Article 185    To create a mortgage interest, the parties concerned shall conclude a mortgage contract in written form.
A mortgage contract generally includes the following particulars:
(1) the kind and amount of claims secured;
(2) the time limit for the debtor to repay the debt;
(3) the name, quantity, quality, conditions, location or attribution of the ownership or the right to the use, of the mortgaged property; and
(4) the scope of security interest. 
     第一百八十五条  设立抵押权,当事人应当采取书面形式订立抵押合同。
    抵押合同一般包括下列条款:
    (一)被担保债权的种类和数额;
    (二)债务人履行债务的期限;
    (三)抵押财产的名称、数量、质量、状况、所在地、所有权归属或者使用权归属;
    (四)担保的范围。
Article 186    Before maturity of the debts, the mortgagee may not enter into an agreement with the mortgagor that the mortgaged property shall come under the ownership of the creditor when the debtor defaults.
     第一百八十六条  抵押权人在债务履行期届满前,不得与抵押人约定债务人不履行到期债务时抵押财产归债权人所有。
Article 187    Where the property specified in Subparagraphs (1), (2) and (3), or the buildings under construction specified in Subparagraph (5), under the first paragraph of Article 180 of this Law are mortgaged, such mortgage shall be registered. The mortgage interest is created as of the date of registration.
     第一百八十七条  以本法第一百八十条第一款第一项至第三项规定的财产或者第五项规定的正在建造的建筑物抵押的,应当办理抵押登记。抵押权自登记时设立。
Article 188    Where the property specified in Subparagraphs (4), (5) and (6), or the vessels and aircraft under construction specified in Subparagraph (5), under the first paragraph of Article 180 of this Law are mortgaged, the mortgage interest is created at the time when the mortgage contract becomes valid; if the mortgage interest is not registered, it shall not be used against a bona fide third party.
     第一百八十八条  以本法第一百八十条第一款第四项、第六项规定的财产或者第五项规定的正在建造的船舶、航空器抵押的,抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
Article 189    Where an enterprise, a self-employed industrial or commercial household, or an agricultural producer or distributor mortgages movable property specified in Article 181 of this Law, it shall register with the administration department for industry and commerce at the place where the domicile of the mortgagor is located. The mortgage interest shall be created at the time when the mortgage contract becomes valid; if such interest is not registered, it shall not be used against a bona fide third party.
Where a mortgage is made in accordance with the provisions of Article 181 of this Law, it shall not be used against the buyer who has paid reasonable price and obtained the mortgaged property in the ordinary course of business operations.
     第一百八十九条  企业、个体工商户、农业生产经营者以本法第一百八十一条规定的动产抵押的,应当向抵押人住所地的工商行政管理部门办理登记。抵押权自抵押合同生效时设立;未经登记,不得对抗善意第三人。
    依照本法第一百八十一条规定抵押的,不得对抗正常经营活动中已支付合理价款并取得抵押财产的买受人。
Article 190    If a mortgagor leases the mortgaged property before the mortgage contract is concluded, the previously established leasing relation shall not be affected. If a mortgagor leases the mortgaged property after the creation of the mortgage interest, the leasing relation may not be used against the registered mortgage interest.
     第一百九十条  订立抵押合同前抵押财产已出租的,原租赁关系不受该抵押权的影响。抵押权设立后抵押财产出租的,该租赁关系不得对抗已登记的抵押权。
Article 191    If a mortgagor transfers the mortgaged property with the consent of the mortgagee during the period of mortgage, the proceeds which the mortgagor obtains from the transfer of the mortgaged property shall in advance be used to settle the claim secured by the mortgagee or be deposited with a third party. If the proceeds obtained from the transfer exceed the secured claim, the balance shall go to the mortgagor; if the proceeds is insufficient to cover the claim, the uncovered part shall be paid by the debtor. 
The mortgagor may not transfer the mortgaged property without the consent of the mortgagee during the period of mortgage, unless the transferee pays off the debts for the mortgagor and thus the mortgage interest extinguishes.
     第一百九十一条  抵押期间,抵押人经抵押权人同意转让抵押财产的,应当将转让所得的价款向抵押权人提前清偿债务或者提存。转让的价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。
    抵押期间,抵押人未经抵押权人同意,不得转让抵押财产,但受让人代为清偿债务消灭抵押权的除外。
Article 192    The mortgage interest may not be separated from the claim to be transferred independently, or to be used to secure another claim. If the claim is transferred, the interest of mortgage shall be transferred along with it, unless otherwise provided for by law or agreed upon by the parties.
     第一百九十二条  抵押权不得与债权分离而单独转让或者作为其他债权的担保。债权转让的,担保该债权的抵押权一并转让,但法律另有规定或者当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 193    Where a mortgagor acts in such a way as to cause depreciation of the mortgaged property, the mortgagee shall have the right to demand that the mortgagor cease and desist from such act. Where the value of the mortgaged property depreciates, the mortgagee shall have the right to demand that the mortgagor restore the original value of the mortgaged property or provide security corresponding to the amount of the value reduced. Where a mortgagor fails to restore the original value of the mortgaged property or provide corresponding security, the mortgagee shall have the right to demand the debtor to settle the claim in advance.
     第一百九十三条  抵押人的行为足以使抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权要求抵押人停止其行为。抵押财产价值减少的,抵押权人有权要求恢复抵押财产的价值,或者提供与减少的价值相应的担保。抵押人不恢复抵押财产的价值也不提供担保的,抵押权人有权要求债务人提前清偿债务。
Article 194    A mortgagee may waive his mortgage interest or his place in the order of mortgage interest. A mortgagee and a mortgagor may, upon agreement, change the place in the order of the mortgage interest, the amount of secured claims, etc., provided that such a change, without the written consent of other mortgagees, shall not have an adverse effect on other mortgagees.
Where a debtor uses his own property for mortgage, if a mortgagee waives his mortgage interest or his place in the order of the mortgage interest or makes changes in respect of his mortgage interest, other guarantors shall be exempted from the suretyship to the extent that the mortgagee forfeits his rights and interests in terms of the priority in being paid off, unless the said guarantors are still committed to the suretyship.
     第一百九十四条  抵押权人可以放弃抵押权或者抵押权的顺位。抵押权人与抵押人可以协议变更抵押权顺位以及被担保的债权数额等内容,但抵押权的变更,未经其他抵押权人书面同意,不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。
    债务人以自己的财产设定抵押,抵押权人放弃该抵押权、抵押权顺位或者变更抵押权的,其他担保人在抵押权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。
Article 195    Where the debtor defaults or the conditions for enforcement of the mortgage interest thereof, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise, the mortgagee may enter into an agreement with the mortgagor that he be given the priority in being paid with the money into which the mortgaged property is converted or the proceeds obtained from auction or sale of the property. If such agreement undermines the interests of other creditors, they may apply to the people's court for cancellation of the agreement within one year from the date they come to know or should have known the cause for cancellation.
If the mortgagee and mortgagor fail to reach an agreement on the means of enforcing the mortgage interest, the mortgagee may apply to the people's court for auction or sale of the mortgaged property.
The mortgaged property shall be converted into money or be sold off by referring to its market price.
     第一百九十五条  债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人可以与抵押人协议以抵押财产折价或者以拍卖、变卖该抵押财产所得的价款优先受偿。协议损害其他债权人利益的,其他债权人可以在知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内请求人民法院撤销该协议。
    抵押权人与抵押人未就抵押权实现方式达成协议的,抵押权人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖抵押财产。
    抵押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。
Article 196    Where a mortgage interest is created in accordance with the provisions of Article 181 of this Law, the mortgaged property shall be established when one of the following circumstances arises:
(1) The debts are not paid when they fall due;
(2) The mortgagor is declared bankrupt or is dissolved;
(3) The conditions for enforcement of the mortgage interest, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise; or
(4) Other circumstances arise which may seriously affect the enforcement of the claim.
     第一百九十六条  依照本法第一百八十一条规定设定抵押的,抵押财产自下列情形之一发生时确定:
    (一)债务履行期届满,债权未实现;
    (二)抵押人被宣告破产或者被撤销;
    (三)当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形;
    (四)严重影响债权实现的其他情形。
Article 197    If the mortgaged property is seized by a people's court according to law because the debtor defaults or the conditions for enforcement of the interest, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise, the mortgagee shall, from the date of the seizure, have the right to collect the natural or statutory fruits accrued from the mortgaged property, except where the mortgagee fails to notify the person who is obliged to pay the statutory fruits.
The fruits mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay off the expenses for collecting such fruits.
     第一百九十七条  债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,致使抵押财产被人民法院依法扣押的,自扣押之日起抵押权人有权收取该抵押财产的天然孳息或者法定孳息,但抵押权人未通知应当清偿法定孳息的义务人的除外。
    前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。
Article 198    If the proceeds obtained from conversion into money or from auction or sale of mortgaged property exceed the amount of a claim, the balance shall go to the mortgagor; and if the proceeds are insufficient to cover the claim, the uncovered part shall be paid by the debtor.
     第一百九十八条  抵押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归抵押人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。
Article 199    Where a piece of property is mortgaged to two or more creditors, the proceeds from auction or sale of the mortgaged property shall be used for liquidation according to the following provisions:
(1) Where the mortgage interest is registered, the liquidation shall be made in the order of the registration of the mortgage interest; if the order of registration is the same, liquidation of the claims shall be made on a pro rata basis;
(2) The claim secured by a registered mortgage interest shall be satisfied prior to the unregistered ones; and
(3) Liquidation of unregistered mortgage interests shall be made on a pro rata basis in respect of the claims. 
     第一百九十九条  同一财产向两个以上债权人抵押的,拍卖、变卖抵押财产所得的价款依照下列规定清偿:
    (一)抵押权已登记的,按照登记的先后顺序清偿;顺序相同的,按照债权比例清偿;
    (二)抵押权已登记的先于未登记的受偿;
    (三)抵押权未登记的,按照债权比例清偿。
Article 200    After the right to the use of land for construction is mortgaged, the buildings erected thereafter are not mortgaged property. Where the said land use right is used to satisfy the mortgage interest, the newly-erected buildings on the land shall be disposed of together with the land use right; however, the mortgagee shall have no priority in having his claim paid with the proceeds from the said buildings.
     第二百条  建设用地使用权抵押后,该土地上新增的建筑物不属于抵押财产。该建设用地使用权实现抵押权时,应当将该土地上新增的建筑物与建设用地使用权一并处分,但新增建筑物所得的价款,抵押权人无权优先受偿。
Article 201    Where the right to land contractual management is mortgaged, as specified in Subparagraph (3) under the first paragraph of Article 180 of this Law, or the right to the use of land for construction within the area occupied by the workshops and other buildings of a town (township) or village enterprise is mortgaged along with the workshops or other buildings, as specified in Article 183 of this Law, the nature of ownership and the purpose of use of the land may not be altered without going through the statutory procedure after the enforcement of the mortgage interests thereon.
     第二百零一条  依照本法第一百八十条第一款第三项规定的土地承包经营权抵押的,或者依照本法第一百八十三条规定以乡镇、村企业的厂房等建筑物占用范围内的建设用地使用权一并抵押的,实现抵押权后,未经法定程序,不得改变土地所有权的性质和土地用途。
Article 202    The mortgagee shall exercise his mortgage interest within the limitation provided for action of the principal claim; if he fails to do so, the people's court shall not provide protection in this respect .
     第二百零二条  抵押权人应当在主债权诉讼时效期间行使抵押权;未行使的,人民法院不予保护。
Section 2: Maximum Mortgage Interest
第二节  最高额抵押权
Article 203    Where a debtor or a third party provides security for the debts to be incurred consecutively within a given period of time, if the debtor defaults or the conditions for enforcement of the mortgage interest, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise, the mortgagee shall have the priority in having his claims paid with the security to the extent of the maximum amount of the claims.
A claim that exists before the creation of the maximum mortgage interest may, with consent of the parties, be included in the claims secured by the maximum amount of mortgage.
     第二百零三条  为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人对一定期间内将要连续发生的债权提供担保财产的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现抵押权的情形,抵押权人有权在最高债权额限度内就该担保财产优先受偿。
    最高额抵押权设立前已经存在的债权,经当事人同意,可以转入最高额抵押担保的债权范围。
Article 204    Where, before the claims secured by the maximum amount of mortgage are established, part of the claims is transferred, the maximum amount of the mortgage interest may not be transferred along, unless otherwise agreed upon by the parties.
     第二百零四条  最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,部分债权转让的,最高额抵押权不得转让,但当事人另有约定的除外。
Article 205    Before the claims secured by the maximum amount of mortgage are established, the mortgagee and the mortgagor may alter the term, scope and maximum amount of the claims through agreement, provided that such alteration shall not have any adverse effect on the other mortgagees. 
     第二百零五条  最高额抵押担保的债权确定前,抵押权人与抵押人可以通过协议变更债权确定的期间、债权范围以及最高债权额,但变更的内容不得对其他抵押权人产生不利影响。
Article 206    The claim of the mortgagee is established under one of the following circumstances:
(1) The agreed term for establishment of the claim expires;
(2) In the absence of a definitely agreed term for establishing the claim or the term agreed upon is indefinite, the mortgagee or the mortgagor requests establishment of the claim after the lapse of two years calculated from the date of creation of the maximum mortgage interest;
(3) No new claim is likely to be created;
(4) The mortgaged property is sealed up or distrained;
(5) The debtor or the mortgagor is declared bankrupt or is dissolved; or
(6) Other circumstances provided by law under which a claim is established.
     第二百零六条  有下列情形之一的,抵押权人的债权确定:
    (一)约定的债权确定期间届满;
    (二)没有约定债权确定期间或者约定不明确,抵押权人或者抵押人自最高额抵押权设立之日起满二年后请求确定债权;
    (三)新的债权不可能发生;
    (四)抵押财产被查封、扣押;
    (五)债务人、抵押人被宣告破产或者被撤销;
    (六)法律规定债权确定的其他情形。
Article 207    The maximum mortgage interest shall be governed by the provisions of Section 1 of this Chapter on general interests acquired through mortgage, apart from the provisions of this Section.
     第二百零七条  最高额抵押权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节一般抵押权的规定。
Chapter 17: Interest Acquired Through Pledge
Section 1: Interest Acquired Through Pledge of Movables
第十七章  质权
第一节  动产质权
Article 208    Where to guarantee the repayment of debts, the debtor or a third party pledges his movables to the creditor, if the debtor defaults or the conditions for enforcement of the interest, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise, the creditor shall be entitled to the priority in having his claim paid with the pledged movables.
As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the debtor or the third party is the pledgor, the creditor is the pledgee, and the movables delivered are the pledged property.
     第二百零八条  为担保债务的履行,债务人或者第三人将其动产出质给债权人占有的,债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,债权人有权就该动产优先受偿。
    前款规定的债务人或者第三人为出质人,债权人为质权人,交付的动产为质押财产。
Article 209    Movables the transfer of which is prohibited by laws or administrative regulations shall not be pledged.
     第二百零九条  法律、行政法规禁止转让的动产不得出质。
Article 210    To create the interest of a pledge, the parties concerned shall conclude a pledge contract in written form.
A pledge contract generally includes the following particulars:
(1) the kind and amount of the claim secured;
(2) the time limit for the debtor to repay his debts;
(3) the name, quantity, quality and conditions of the pledged property;
(4) the scope of the secured interest; and
(5) the time for delivery of the pledged property.
     第二百一十条  设立质权,当事人应当采取书面形式订立质权合同。
    质权合同一般包括下列条款:
    (一)被担保债权的种类和数额;
    (二)债务人履行债务的期限;
    (三)质押财产的名称、数量、质量、状况;
    (四)担保的范围;
    (五)质押财产交付的时间。
Article 211    Before the maturity of the debts, the pledgee shall not conclude an agreement with the pledgor that ownership of the pledged property go to the pledgee if the debtor defaults.
     第二百一十一条  质权人在债务履行期届满前,不得与出质人约定债务人不履行到期债务时质押财产归债权人所有。
Article 212    The interest of a pledge is established upon delivery of the pledged property by the pledgor.
     第二百一十二条  质权自出质人交付质押财产时设立。
Article 213    The pledgee shall have the right to collect the fruits accrued from the pledged property, unless otherwise stipulated in the contract.
The fruits specified in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay off the expenses for collecting the fruits.
     第二百一十三条  质权人有权收取质押财产的孳息,但合同另有约定的除外。
    前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。
Article 214    If, without the consent of the pledgor, the pledgee uses or disposes of the pledged property during the existence of the pledge interest, thus causing losses to the pledgor, he shall be liable for compensation.
     第二百一十四条  质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意,擅自使用、处分质押财产,给出质人造成损害的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 215    The pledgee has the duty to safekeep the pledged property. If the pledged property is damaged, destroyed or lost due to improper keeping, the pledgee shall be liable for compensation.
Where the action of the pledgee will likely cause damage, destruction or loss of the pledged property, the pledgor may request the pledgee to deposit the pledged property with a third party, or to offer to clear his debts in advance and return the pledged property.
     第二百一十五条  质权人负有妥善保管质押财产的义务;因保管不善致使质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
    质权人的行为可能使质押财产毁损、灭失的,出质人可以要求质权人将质押财产提存,或者要求提前清偿债务并返还质押财产。
Article 216    Where due to no fault of the pledgee, the pledged property is likely to be so damaged or destroyed or its value to be depreciated so markedly as to undermine the rights of the pledgee, the pledgee shall have the right to demand that the pledgor provide an appropriate security. If the pledgor refuses to do so, the pledgee may have the pledged property auctioned or sold and may, through agreement with the pledgor, use the proceeds therefrom to repay the debts in advance or deposit the proceeds with a third party.
     第二百一十六条  因不能归责于质权人的事由可能使质押财产毁损或者价值明显减少,足以危害质权人权利的,质权人有权要求出质人提供相应的担保;出质人不提供的,质权人可以拍卖、变卖质押财产,并与出质人通过协议将拍卖、变卖所得的价款提前清偿债务或者提存。
Article 217    If, during the existence of the interest of a pledge, the pledgee repledges the pledged property to a third party without the consent of the pledgor, thus causing damage, destruction or loss of the property, the pledgee shall be liable for compensation.
     第二百一十七条  质权人在质权存续期间,未经出质人同意转质,造成质押财产毁损、灭失的,应当向出质人承担赔偿责任。
Article 218    The pledgee may waive his interest to the pledge. Where the debtor pledges his own property and the pledgee waives his interest to the pledge, the other guarantors may be exempted from suretyship to the extent that the pledgee forfeits his rights and interests in terms of the priority in being paid off, unless the guarantors are still committed to the suretyship.
     第二百一十八条  质权人可以放弃质权。债务人以自己的财产出质,质权人放弃该质权的,其他担保人在质权人丧失优先受偿权益的范围内免除担保责任,但其他担保人承诺仍然提供担保的除外。
Article 219    Where the debtor repays the debts or the pledgor pays off in advance the debts he guaranteed, the pledgee shall return the pledged property.
If the debtor defaults or the conditions for enforcement of the interest, as agreed upon by the parties concerned, arise, the pledgee may conclude an agreement with the pledgor that the pledged property be converted into money, or he may enjoy the priority in having his claim paid with the proceeds obtained from auction or sale of the pledged property.
The pledged property shall be converted into money or be sold off by referring to its market price.
     第二百一十九条  债务人履行债务或者出质人提前清偿所担保的债权的,质权人应当返还质押财产。
    债务人不履行到期债务或者发生当事人约定的实现质权的情形,质权人可以与出质人协议以质押财产折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖质押财产所得的价款优先受偿。
    质押财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。
Article 220    The pledgor may request the pledgee to enforce his interest to the pledge in a timely manner at the maturity of the debts. Where the pledgee fails to do so, the pledgor may request the people's court to have the pledged property auctioned or sold.
Where the pledgor requests the pledgee to enforce his interest to the pledge in a timely manner, the pledgee slacks in doing so, thus causing losses, he shall be liable for compensation.
     第二百二十条  出质人可以请求质权人在债务履行期届满后及时行使质权;质权人不行使的,出质人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖质押财产。
    出质人请求质权人及时行使质权,因质权人怠于行使权利造成损害的,由质权人承担赔偿责任。
Article 221    If, after the pledged property is converted into money or auctioned or sold, the proceeds therefrom exceed the amount of the claim, the balance shall go to the pledgor, and if they are insufficient to cover the debts, the difference shall be paid by the debtor.
     第二百二十一条  质押财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归出质人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。
Article 222    The pledgor and the pledgee may create the maximum pledge interest by agreement.
Apart from the relevant provisions of this Section, the provisions in Section 2 of Chapter 16 of this Law on maximum mortgage interest shall be applicable mutantis mutandis.
     第二百二十二条  出质人与质权人可以协议设立最高额质权。
    最高额质权除适用本节有关规定外,参照本法第十六章第二节最高额抵押权的规定。
Section 2: Interests Acquired Through Pledge of Rights
第二节  权利质权
Article 223    The following rights that a debtor or a third party is entitled to dispose of may be pledged:
(1) bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes;
(2) bonds, certificates of deposit;
(3) warehouse receipts, bills of lading;
(4) portions of funds or certificates of stocks which are transferable;
(5) proprietary rights consisted in the intellectual property rights, such as the right to exclusive use of registered trademarks, the patents and copyrights, which are transferable;
(6) accounts receivable; and
(7) other property rights which may be pledged as provided for by laws and administrative regulations.
     第二百二十三条  债务人或者第三人有权处分的下列权利可以出质:
    (一)汇票、支票、本票;
    (二)债券、存款单;
    (三)仓单、提单;
    (四)可以转让的基金份额、股权;
    (五)可以转让的注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权;
    (六)应收账款;
    (七)法律、行政法规规定可以出质的其他财产权利。
Article 224    Where a bill of exchange, cheque, promissory note, bond, certificate of deposit, warehouse receipt or bill of lading is pledged, the parties concerned shall conclude a contract in written form. The interest to the pledge is created at the time when the certificate of right is delivered to the pledgee; if there is no such certificate, the interest is created at the time when the pledge is registered with the relevant authority.
     第二百二十四条  以汇票、支票、本票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单出质的,当事人应当订立书面合同。质权自权利凭证交付质权人时设立;没有权利凭证的,质权自有关部门办理出质登记时设立。
Article 225    Where the date of payment or of delivery of goods in respect of a pledged bill of exchange, cheque, promissory note, bond, certificate of deposit, warehouse receipt or bill of lading is matured prior to the date of maturity of the principal claim, the pledgee may accept the payment or the goods delivered and may conclude an agreement with the pledgor that the payment or the goods accepted be used to pay the debts in advance or be deposited with a third party.
     第二百二十五条  汇票、支票、本票、债券、存款单、仓单、提单的兑现日期或者提货日期先于主债权到期的,质权人可以兑现或者提货,并与出质人协议将兑现的价款或者提取的货物提前清偿债务或者提存。
Article 226    Where portions of funds or shares are pledged, the parties concerned shall conclude a contract in written form. Where portions of funds or the shares that are registered with the securities registration and settlement authority are pledged, the interest to the pledge is established at the time when the pledge is registered with the securities registration and settlement authority. Where other kinds of shares are pledged, the interest to the pledge is established at the time when the pledge is registered with the administration department for industry and commerce.
The portions of funds or the shares that are pledged may not be transferred, unless otherwise agreed upon by the pledgor and the pledgee. The proceeds the pledgor obtained from the transfer of the portions of funds or shares shall be used in advance to pay the debts owed to the pledgee or be deposited with a third party.
     第二百二十六条  以基金份额、股权出质的,当事人应当订立书面合同。以基金份额、证券登记结算机构登记的股权出质的,质权自证券登记结算机构办理出质登记时设立;以其他股权出质的,质权自工商行政管理部门办理出质登记时设立。
    基金份额、股权出质后,不得转让,但经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让基金份额、股权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。
Article 227    Where the proprietary rights consisted in the intellectual property rights, such as the right to exclusive use of registered trademarks, the patents and copyrights, are pledged, the parties concerned shall conclude a contract in written form. The interest to the pledge is perfected at the time when the pledge is registered with the relevant authority.
If the proprietary rights consisted in the intellectual property rights are pledged, the pledgor may not transfer or permit another person to use such rights, unless otherwise agreed upon by the pledgor and the pledgee through consultation. The proceeds obtained by the pledgor through transfer of such rights or through permitting another person to use such rights shall be used in advance to pay the debts owed to the pledgee or be deposited with a third party.
     第二百二十七条  以注册商标专用权、专利权、著作权等知识产权中的财产权出质的,当事人应当订立书面合同。质权自有关主管部门办理出质登记时设立。
    知识产权中的财产权出质后,出质人不得转让或者许可他人使用,但经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让或者许可他人使用出质的知识产权中的财产权所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。
Article 228    Where the accounts receivable are pledged, the parties concerned shall conclude a contract in written form. The interest to the pledge is created at the time when the pledge is registered with the credit information service.
The pledged accounts receivable may not be transferred, unless otherwise agreed upon by the pledgor and the pledgee through consultation. The proceeds obtained by the pledgor from the transfer of the accounts receivable shall be used in advance to pay the debts owed to the pledge or be deposited with a third party.
     第二百二十八条  以应收账款出质的,当事人应当订立书面合同。质权自信贷征信机构办理出质登记时设立。
    应收账款出质后,不得转让,但经出质人与质权人协商同意的除外。出质人转让应收账款所得的价款,应当向质权人提前清偿债务或者提存。
Article 229    The interests acquired through pledge of rights are governed, apart from by the provisions of this Section, by those under Section 1 of this Chapter on interests acquired through pledge.
     第二百二十九条  权利质权除适用本节规定外,适用本章第一节动产质权的规定。
Chapter 18: Lien
第十八章  留置权
Article 230    If a debtor defaults, the creditor may retain the debtor's movables which have been legally possessed by the creditor and shall have the priority in being paid with the said property.
The creditor mentioned in the preceding paragraph is the lien holder, and the movables in his possession are the retained property.
     第二百三十条  债务人不履行到期债务,债权人可以留置已经合法占有的债务人的动产,并有权就该动产优先受偿。
    前款规定的债权人为留置权人,占有的动产为留置财产。
Article 231    The movables retained by the creditor fall in the same nexus of legal relationships with the creditor's claims, except in the case of a lien between enterprises.
     第二百三十一条  债权人留置的动产,应当与债权属于同一法律关系,但企业之间留置的除外。
Article 232    The movables may not be retained as are so stipulated by law or by agreement between the parties concerned.
     第二百三十二条  法律规定或者当事人约定不得留置的动产,不得留置。
Article 233    Where the retained property is dividable, the value of the retained property shall be equivalent to the amount of the debts owed.
     第二百三十三条  留置财产为可分物的,留置财产的价值应当相当于债务的金额。
Article 234    The lien holder shall have the duty to safekeep the retained property. If the retained property is damaged, destroyed or lost due to improper keeping, the lien holder shall be liable for compensation.
     第二百三十四条  留置权人负有妥善保管留置财产的义务;因保管不善致使留置财产毁损、灭失的,应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 235    The lien holder shall have the right to collect the fruits accrued from the retained property.
The fruits mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall first be used to pay the expenses for collecting the fruits.
     第二百三十五条  留置权人有权收取留置财产的孳息。
    前款规定的孳息应当先充抵收取孳息的费用。
Article 236    The lien holder and the debtor shall reach an agreement on the time limit for the debtor to pay the debts after the property is retained. If there is no such agreement or if the agreement is indefinite, the lien holder shall allow a time limit of two months or longer for the debtor to pay the debts, except where the movables are fresh, living or perishable things. If the debtor defaults at the expiration of the specified time limit, the lien holder may upon agreement with the debtor have the retained property converted into money, or may enjoy the priority in having the debts paid with the proceeds from auction or sale of the property.
The retained property shall be converted into money or be sold off by referring to its market price.
     第二百三十六条  留置权人与债务人应当约定留置财产后的债务履行期间;没有约定或者约定不明确的,留置权人应当给债务人两个月以上履行债务的期间,但鲜活易腐等不易保管的动产除外。债务人逾期未履行的,留置权人可以与债务人协议以留置财产折价,也可以就拍卖、变卖留置财产所得的价款优先受偿。
    留置财产折价或者变卖的,应当参照市场价格。
Article 237    The debtor may request the lien holder to enforce the right of lien after the expiration of the time limit for payment of the debts. Where the lien holder fails to enforce the right, the debtor may request the people's court to have the retained property auctioned or sold.
     第二百三十七条  债务人可以请求留置权人在债务履行期届满后行使留置权;留置权人不行使的,债务人可以请求人民法院拍卖、变卖留置财产。
Article 238    If after the retained property is converted into money, auctioned or sold, the proceeds therefrom exceed the amount of the claim, the balance shall go to the debtor, and if they are insufficient to cover the debts, the difference shall be paid by the debtor.
     第二百三十八条  留置财产折价或者拍卖、变卖后,其价款超过债权数额的部分归债务人所有,不足部分由债务人清偿。
Article 239    Where a lien is created on the same piece of the movables that has been mortgaged or pledged, the lien holder shall enjoy the priority in having his debts paid.
     第二百三十九条  同一动产上已设立抵押权或者质权,该动产又被留置的,留置权人优先受偿。
Article 240    Where the lien holder forfeits his possession of the retained property or accepts other security provided by the debtor, the right of lien shall extinguish.
     第二百四十条  留置权人对留置财产丧失占有或者留置权人接受债务人另行提供担保的,留置权消灭。
Part 5: Possession
Chapter 19: Possession
第五编  占有
第十九章  占有
Article 241    In the event of possession arising from contractual relationship, the use of the immovables or movables in question, the benefits therefrom and breach of duty shall be subject to the terms of the contract. If there are no such terms in the contract or such terms are indefinite, they shall be governed by the provisions of relevant laws.
     第二百四十一条  基于合同关系等产生的占有,有关不动产或者动产的使用、收益、违约责任等,按照合同约定;合同没有约定或者约定不明确的,依照有关法律规定。
Article 242    Where a possessor causes damage to the immovables or movables in the use of it, the possessor, if he is a mala fidei one, shall be liable for compensation.
     第二百四十二条  占有人因使用占有的不动产或者动产,致使该不动产或者动产受到损害的,恶意占有人应当承担赔偿责任。
Article 243    Where the immovables or movables come to be possessed by another person, the obligee may request the person to return them and the fruits therefrom; however, the obligee shall compensate the possessor, if he is a bona fide one, for his expenses necessitated for maintaining the property.
     第二百四十三条  不动产或者动产被占有人占有的,权利人可以请求返还原物及其孳息,但应当支付善意占有人因维护该不动产或者动产支出的必要费用。
Article 244    Where the immovables or movables in the possession of another person is damaged, or destroyed or lost and the obligee requests compensation, the possessor shall return the insurance monies, compensation payment, indemnities, etc. to the obligee. If the losses of the obligee are not fully covered thereby, the possessor, if he is a mala fidei one, shall, in addition, compensate for the uncovered part.
     第二百四十四条  占有的不动产或者动产毁损、灭失,该不动产或者动产的权利人请求赔偿的,占有人应当将因毁损、灭失取得的保险金、赔偿金或者补偿金等返还给权利人;权利人的损害未得到足够弥补的,恶意占有人还应当赔偿损失。
Article 245    Where the immovables or movables in a person's possession are encroached upon, the person shall have the right to request the return of the original property. In the event of trespass to the possession of another, the possessor shall have the right to request elimination of such trespass or hazard. If damage is caused by encroachment or the trespass, the possessor shall have the right to request compensation.,
The right of claim to the return of the original property shall extinguish, if the possessor fails to exercise it within one year from the date of the encroachment.
     第二百四十五条  占有的不动产或者动产被侵占的,占有人有权请求返还原物;对妨害占有的行为,占有人有权请求排除妨害或者消除危险;因侵占或者妨害造成损害的,占有人有权请求损害赔偿。
    占有人返还原物的请求权,自侵占发生之日起一年内未行使的,该请求权消灭。
Supplementary Provisions
附 则
Article 246    Before the scope, authority and measures for unified registration of immovable property are stipulated by laws or administrative regulations, they may be stipulated by local regulations according to the relevant provisions of this Law.
     第二百四十六条  法律、行政法规对不动产统一登记的范围、登记机构和登记办法作出规定前,地方性法规可以依照本法有关规定作出规定。
Article 247    This Law shall go into effect as of October 1, 2007.
ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY THE GENERAL OFFICE OF THE LEGISLATIVE AFFAIRS COMMISSION, THE STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE NATIONAL PEOPLE'S CONGRESS.
LICENSED FOR USE AS OF MARCH 2009.
     第二百四十七条  本法自2007年10月1日起施行。

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