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联合国全程或部分海上国际货物运输合同公约
作者:赵丽娜律师发布   出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2011-03-30 16:58:00

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea

联合国全程或部分海上国际货物运输合同公约

Signatory: General Assembly of the United Nations
Date of Signature: 12/11/2008
Validity Status: Valid
缔约方: 联合国大会
缔约时间: 12/11/2008
效力状态: 有效

Text

正文

The States Parties to this Convention,
Reaffirming their belief that international trade on the basis of equality and mutual benefit is an important element in promoting friendly relations among States,
Convinced that the progressive harmonization and unification of international trade law, in reducing or removing legal obstacles to the flow of international trade, significantly contributes to universal economic cooperation among all States on a basis of equality, equity and common interest, and to the well-being of all peoples,
Recognizing the significant contribution of the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading, signed in Brussels on 25 August 1924, and its Protocols, and of the United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea, signed in Hamburg on 31 March 1978, to the harmonization of the law governing the carriage of goods by sea,
Mindful of the technological and commercial developments that have taken place since the adoption of those conventions and of the need to consolidate and modernize them,
Noting that shippers and carriers do not have the benefit of a binding universal regime to support the operation of contracts of maritime carriage involving other modes of transport,
Believing that the adoption of uniform rules to govern international contracts of carriage wholly or partly by sea will promote legal certainty, improve the efficiency of international carriage of goods and facilitate new access opportunities for previously remote parties and markets, thus playing a fundamental role in promoting trade and economic development, both domestically and internationally,
Have agreed as follows:
    本公约缔约国,
    重申相信在平等互利基础上发展国际贸易是促进各国之间友好关系的一个重要因素,
    深信通过逐步协调统一国际贸易法,减少、消除国际贸易流通法律障碍,将大大促进所有国家在平等、公平和共同利益基础上的普遍经济合作,造福于各国人民,
    承认1924年8月25日在布鲁塞尔签署的《统一提单若干法律规则国际公约》及其各项议定书以及1978年3月31日在汉堡签署的《联合国海上货物运输公约》对协调海上货物运输法律的显著贡献,
    考虑到自这两项公约通过以来的技术和商业发展以及整合和更新这两项公约进行的必要性,
    注意到托运人和承运人无法利用一个有约束力的普遍性制度支持涉及其他运输方式的海上运输合同的运作,
    相信采用统一规则,对全程或部分海上国际运输合同进行规范,将促进法律确定性,提高国际货物运输效率,便利过去相距遥远的当事人和市场获得新的准入机会,从而对促进国内、国际贸易和经济发展发挥极其重要的作用,
    兹商定如下:
Chapter 1  General provisions
 第一章
 总则
Article 1  Definitions
For the purposes of this Convention:
1. "Contract of carriage" means a contract in which a carrier, against the payment of freight, undertakes to carry goods from one place to another. The contract shall provide for carriage by sea and may provide for carriage by other modes of transport in addition to the sea carriage.
2. "Volume contract" means a contract of carriage that provides for the carriage of a specified quantity of goods in a series of shipments during an agreed period of time. The specification of the quantity may include a minimum, a maximum or a certain range.
3. "Liner transportation" means a transportation service that is offered to the public through publication or similar means and includes transportation by ships operating on a regular schedule between specified ports in accordance with publicly available timetables of sailing dates.
4. "Non-liner transportation" means any transportation that is not liner transportation.
5. "Carrier" means a person that enters into a contract of carriage with a shipper.
6. (a) "Performing party" means a person other than the carrier that performs or undertakes to perform any of the carrier's obligations under a contract of carriage with respect to the receipt, loading, handling, stowage, carriage, care, unloading or delivery of the goods, to the extent that such person acts, either directly or indirectly, at the carrier's request or under the carrier's supervision or control.
(b) "Performing party" does not include any person that is retained, directly or indirectly, by a shipper, by a documentary shipper, by the controlling party or by the consignee instead of by the carrier.
7. "Maritime performing party" means a performing party to the extent that it performs or undertakes to perform any of the carrier's obligations during the period between the arrival of the goods at the port of loading of a ship and their departure from the port of discharge of a ship. An inland carrier is a maritime performing party only if it performs or undertakes to perform its services exclusively within a port area.
8. "Shipper" means a person that enters into a contract of carriage with a carrier.
9. "Documentary shipper" means a person, other than the shipper, that accepts to be named as "shipper" in the transport document or electronic transport record.
10. "Holder" means:
(a) A person that is in possession of a negotiable transport document; and (i) if the document is an order document, is identified in it as the shipper or the consignee, or is the person to which the document is duly endorsed; or (ii) if the document is a blank endorsed order document or bearer document, is the bearer thereof; or
(b) The person to which a negotiable electronic transport record has been issued or transferred in accordance with the procedures referred to in article 9, paragraph 1.
11. "Consignee" means a person entitled to delivery of the goods under a contract of carriage or a transport document or electronic transport record.
12. "Right of control" of the goods means the right under the contract of carriage to give the carrier instructions in respect of the goods in accordance with chapter 10.
13. "Controlling party" means the person that pursuant to article 51 is entitled to exercise the right of control.
14. "Transport document" means a document issued under a contract of carriage by the carrier that:
(a) Evidences the carrier's or a performing party's receipt of goods under a contract of carriage; and
(b) Evidences or contains a contract of carriage.
15. "Negotiable transport document" means a transport document that indicates, by wording such as "to order" or "negotiable" or other appropriate wording recognized as having the same effect by the law applicable to the document, that the goods have been consigned to the order of the shipper, to the order of the consignee, or to bearer, and is not explicitly stated as being "non-negotiable" or "not negotiable".
16. "Non-negotiable transport document" means a transport document that is not a negotiable transport document.
17. "Electronic communication" means information generated, sent, received or stored by electronic, optical, digital or similar means with the result that the information communicated is accessible so as to be usable for subsequent reference.
18. "Electronic transport record" means information in one or more messages issued by electronic communication under a contract of carriage by a carrier, including information logically associated with the electronic transport record by attachments or otherwise linked to the electronic transport record contemporaneously with or subsequent to its issue by the carrier, so as to become part of the electronic transport record, that:
(a) Evidences the carrier's or a performing party's receipt of goods under a contract of carriage; and
(b) Evidences or contains a contract of carriage.
19. "Negotiable electronic transport record" means an electronic transport record:
(a) That indicates, by wording such as "to order", or "negotiable", or other appropriate wording recognized as having the same effect by the law applicable to the record, that the goods have been consigned to the order of the shipper or to the order of the consignee, and is not explicitly stated as being "non-negotiable" or "not negotiable"; and
(b) The use of which meets the requirements of article 9, paragraph 1.
20. "Non-negotiable electronic transport record" means an electronic transport record that is not a negotiable electronic transport record.
21. The "issuance" of a negotiable electronic transport record means the issuance of the record in accordance with procedures that ensure that the record is subject to exclusive control from its creation until it ceases to have any effect or validity.
22. The "transfer" of a negotiable electronic transport record means the transfer of exclusive control over the record.
23. "Contract particulars" means any information relating to the contract of carriage or to the goods (including terms, notations, signatures and endorsements) that is in a transport document or an electronic transport record.
24. "Goods" means the wares, merchandise, and articles of every kind whatsoever that a carrier undertakes to carry under a contract of carriage and includes the packing and any equipment and container not supplied by or on behalf of the carrier.
25. "Ship" means any vessel used to carry goods by sea.
26. "Container" means any type of container, transportable tank or flat, swapbody, or any similar unit load used to consolidate goods, and any equipment ancillary to such unit load.
27. "Vehicle" means a road or railroad cargo vehicle.
28. "Freight" means the remuneration payable to the carrier for the carriage of goods under a contract of carriage.
29. "Domicile" means (a) a place where a company or other legal person or association of natural or legal persons has its (i) statutory seat or place of incorporation or central registered office, whichever is applicable, (ii) central administration or (iii) principal place of business, and (b) the habitual residence of a natural person.
30. "Competent court" means a court in a Contracting State that, according to the rules on the internal allocation of jurisdiction among the courts of that State, may exercise jurisdiction over the dispute.
 第一条
定义
    在本公约中:
    一、“运输合同”是指承运人收取运费,承诺将货物从一地运至另一地的合同。此种合同应对海上运输作出规定,且可以对海上运输以外的其他运输方式作出规定。
    二、“批量合同”是指在约定期间内分批装运特定数量货物的运输合同。货物数量可以是最低数量、最高数量或一定范围的数量。
    三、“班轮运输”是指通过公告或类似方式向公众提供、按照公布船期表使用船舶在特定港口之间定期运营的运输服务。
    四、“非班轮运输”是指不属于班轮运输的任何运输。
    五、“承运人”是指与托运人订立运输合同的人。
    六、(一)“履约方”是指承运人以外的,履行或承诺履行承运人在运输合同下有关货物接收、装载、操作、积载、运输、照料、卸载或交付的任何义务的人,以该人直接或间接在承运人的要求、监督或控制下行事为限。
    (二)“履约方”不包括不由承运人而由托运人、单证托运人、控制方或收货人直接或间接委托的任何人。
    七、“海运履约方”是指凡在货物到达船舶装货港至货物离开船舶卸货港期间履行或承诺履行承运人任何义务的履约方。内陆承运人仅在履行或承诺履行其完全在港区范围内的服务时方为海运履约方。
    八、“托运人”是指与承运人订立运输合同的人。
    九、“单证托运人”是指托运人以外的,同意在运输单证或电子运输记录中记名为“托运人”的人。
    十、“持有人”:
    (一)指持有可转让运输单证的人;以及1.若单证为指示单证,指该单证所载明的托运人或收货人,或该妥善背书的单证所指明的人;或2.若单证为空白背书的指示单证或不记名单证,指该单证的持单人;或
    (二)指根据第九条第一款述及的程序可转让电子运输记录的接收人或受让人。
    十一、“收货人”是指根据运输合同或根据运输单证或电子运输记录有提货权的人。
    十二、货物“控制权”是指根据第十章按运输合同向承运人发出有关货物的指示的权利。
    十三、“控制方”是指根据第五十一条有权行使控制权的人。
    十四、“运输单证”是指承运人按运输合同签发的单证,该单证:
    (一)证明承运人或履约方已按运输合同收到货物;并且
    (二)证明或包含一项运输合同。
    十五、“可转让运输单证”是指一种运输单证,通过“凭指示”或“可转让”之类的措词,或通过该单证所适用的法律承认具有同等效力的其他适当措词,表明货物按照托运人的指示或收货人的指示交付,或已交付给持单人,且未明示注明其为“不可转让”或“不得转让”。
    十六、“不可转让运输单证”是指不是可转让运输单证的运输单证。
    十七、“电子通信”是指以电子、光学、数码或类似方式生成、发送、接收或存储的信息,通信内容可供调阅,随后可参考取用。
    十八、“电子运输记录”是指承运人按运输合同以电子通信方式发出的一条或数条电文中的信息,包括作为附件与电子运输记录有着逻辑联系的信息,或在承运人签发电子运输记录的同时或之后以其他方式与之有联系从而成为电子运输记录一部分的信息,该信息:
    (一)证明承运人或履约方已按运输合同收到货物;并且
    (二)证明或包含一项运输合同。
    十九、“可转让电子运输记录”是指一种电子运输记录:
    (一)其中通过“凭指示”或“可转让”之类的措词,或通过该记录所适用的法律承认具有同等效力的其他适当措词,表明货物已按照托运人的指示或收货人的指示交付,且未明示注明其为“不可转让”或“不得转让”,并且
    (二)其使用符合第九条第一款要求。
    二十、“不可转让电子运输记录”是指不是可转让电子运输记录的电子运输记录。
    二十一、“签发”可转让电子运输记录,是指按照确保该记录自生成至失去效力处于排他性控制之下的程序签发记录。
    二十二、“转让”可转让电子运输记录,是指转让对该记录的排他性控制。
    二十三、“合同事项”是指运输单证或电子运输记录中载明的与运输合同或与货物有关的任何信息(包括条款、批注、签名和背书)。
    二十四、“货物”是指承运人根据运输合同承运的任何种类的制品、商品和物件,包括不是由承运人或不是以承运人名义提供的包装以及任何设备和集装箱。
    二十五、“船舶”是指用于海上货物运输的任何船只。
    二十六、“集装箱”是指任何型号的集装箱、运输罐柜或板架、交换式车厢、或拼装货物的任何类似货载单元及其附加设备。
    二十七、“车辆”是指公路或铁路货运车辆。
    二十八、“运费”是指应向承运人支付根据运输合同运输货物的报酬。
    二十九、“住所”是指:(一)公司、其他法人、自然人社团或法人社团的下列所在地:1.法定处所或组建地,或注册的中心办事处,以适用者为准,2.中心行政管理机构,或3.主要营业地;及㈢自然人的惯常居住地。
    三十、“管辖法院”是指一缔约国内,根据本国法院之间管辖权内部划分规则可以对某一争议行使管辖权的法院。
Article 2  Interpretation of this Convention
In the interpretation of this Convention, regard is to be had to its international character and to the need to promote uniformity in its application and the observance of good faith in international trade.
第二条
本公约的解释
    在解释本公约时,应当考虑到本公约的国际性,考虑到促进在国际贸易中统一适用本公约和遵守诚信的需要。
Article 3  Form requirements
The notices, confirmation, consent, agreement, declaration and other communications referred to in articles 19, paragraph 2; 23, paragraphs 1 to 4; 36, subparagraphs 1 (b), (c) and (d); 40, subparagraph 4 (b); 44; 48, paragraph 3; 51, subparagraph 1 (b); 59, paragraph 1; 63; 66; 67, paragraph 2; 75, paragraph 4; and 80, paragraphs 2 and 5, shall be in writing. Electronic communications may be used for these purposes, provided that the use of such means is with the consent of the person by which it is communicated and of the person to which it is communicated.
第三条
形式要求
    第十九条  第二款、第二十三条第一款至第四款、第三十六条第一款第二项、第三项和第四项、第四十条第四款第二项、第四十四条、第四十八条第三款、第五十一条第一款第二项、第五十九条第一款、第六十三条、第六十六条、第六十七条第二款、第七十五条第四款以及第八十条第二款和第五款述及的通知、确认、同意、约定、声明和其他通信应当采用书面形式。经收发人同意的,可以为此目的使用电子通信。
Article 4  Applicability of defences and limits of liability
1. Any provision of this Convention that may provide a defence for, or limit the liability of, the carrier applies in any judicial or arbitral proceeding, whether founded in contract, in tort, or otherwise, that is instituted in respect of loss of, damage to, or delay in delivery of goods covered by a contract of carriage or for the breach of any other obligation under this Convention against:
(a) The carrier or a maritime performing party;
(b) The master, crew or any other person that performs services on board the ship; or
(c) Employees of the carrier or a maritime performing party.
2. Any provision of this Convention that may provide a defence for the shipper or the documentary shipper applies in any judicial or arbitral proceeding, whether founded in contract, in tort, or otherwise, that is instituted against the shipper, the documentary shipper, or their subcontractors, agents or employees.
第四条
 抗辩和赔偿责任限制的适用
    一、本公约的规定,凡可为承运人提供抗辩或限制其赔偿责任的,适用于以合同、侵权行为或其他理由为依据就运输合同所涉货物的灭失、损坏或迟延交付或就违反本公约规定的其他任何义务对下列人提起的任何司法程序或仲裁程序:
    (一)承运人或海运履约方;
    (二)船长、船员或在船上履行服务的其他任何人;或
    (三)承运人或海运履约方的受雇人。
    二、本公约的规定,凡可为托运人或单证托运人提供抗辩的,适用于以合同、侵权行为或其他理由为依据对托运人、单证托运人或其分合同人、代理人或受雇人提起的任何司法程序或仲裁程序。
Chapter 2  Scope of application
第二章
 适用范围
Article 5  General scope of application
1. Subject to article 6, this Convention applies to contracts of carriage in which the place of receipt and the place of delivery are in different States, and the port of loading of a sea carriage and the port of discharge of the same sea carriage are in different States, if, according to the contract of carriage, any one of the following places is located in a Contracting State:
(a) The place of receipt;
(b) The port of loading;
(c) The place of delivery; or
(d) The port of discharge.
2. This Convention applies without regard to the nationality of the vessel, the carrier, the performing parties, the shipper, the consignee, or any other interested parties.
    第五条
    一般适用范围
    一、除须遵循第六条的规定外,本公约适用于收货地和交货地位于不同国家且海上运输装货港和同一海上运输卸货港位于不同国家的运输合同,条件是运输合同约定以下地点之一位于一缔约国:
    (一)收货地;
    (二)装货港;
    (三)交货地;或
    (四)卸货港。
    二、本公约的适用不考虑船舶、承运人、履约方、托运人、收货人或其他任何有关方的国籍。
Article 6  Specific exclusions
1. This Convention does not apply to the following contracts in liner transportation:
(a) Charter parties; and
(b) Other contracts for the use of a ship or of any space thereon.
2. This Convention does not apply to contracts of carriage in non-liner transportation except when:
(a) There is no charter party or other contract between the parties for the use of a ship or of any space thereon; and
(b) A transport document or an electronic transport record is issued.
第六条
特定除外情形
    一、本公约不适用于班轮运输中的下列合同:
    (一)租船合同;和
    (二)使用船舶或其中任何舱位的其他合同。
    二、本公约不适用于非班轮运输中的运输合同,但下列情形除外:
    (一)当事人之间不存在使用船舶或其中任何舱位的租船合同或其他合同;并且
    (二)运输单证或电子运输记录已签发。
Article 7  Application to certain parties
Notwithstanding article 6, this Convention applies as between the carrier and the consignee, controlling party or holder that is not an original party to the charter party or other contract of carriage excluded from the application of this Convention. However, this Convention does not apply as between the original parties to a contract of carriage excluded pursuant to article 6.
第七条
对某些当事人的适用
    虽有第六条的规定,如果收货人、控制方或持有人不是被排除在本公约适用范围之外的租船合同或其他运输合同的原始当事人,本公约仍然在承运人与此等当事人之间适用。但是,如果当事人是根据第六条被排除在外的运输合同的原始当事人,本公约在此等原始当事人之间不适用。
Chapter 3  Electronic transport records
 第三章
电子运输记录
Article 8  Use and effect of electronic transport records
Subject to the requirements set out in this Convention:
(a) Anything that is to be in or on a transport document under this Convention may be recorded in an electronic transport record, provided the issuance and subsequent use of an electronic transport record is with the consent of the carrier and the shipper; and
(b) The issuance, exclusive control, or transfer of an electronic transport record has the same effect as the issuance, possession, or transfer of a transport document.
 第八条
电子运输记录的使用和效力
    在不违反本公约所述要求的情况下:
    (一)凡根据本公约应在运输单证上载明的内容,均可在电子运输记录中加以记载,但电子运输记录的签发和随后的使用须得到承运人和托运人的同意;并且
    (二)  电子运输记录的签发、排他性控制或转让,与运输单证的签发、占有或转让具有同等效力。
Article 9  Procedures for use of negotiable electronic transport records
1. The use of a negotiable electronic transport record shall be subject to procedures that provide for:
(a) The method for the issuance and the transfer of that record to an intended holder;
(b) An assurance that the negotiable electronic transport record retains its integrity;
(c) The manner in which the holder is able to demonstrate that it is the holder; and
(d) The manner of providing confirmation that delivery to the holder has been effected, or that, pursuant to articles 10, paragraph 2, or 47, subparagraphs 1 (a) (ii) and (c), the electronic transport record has ceased to have any effect or validity.
2. The procedures in paragraph 1 of this article shall be referred to in the contract particulars and be readily ascertainable.
第九条
可转让电子运输记录的使用程序
    一、使用可转让电子运输记录,应当遵守包含以下内容的程序:
    (一)向预期持有人签发和转让可转让电子运输记录的方法;
    (二)可转让电子运输记录保持完整性的保证;
    (三)持有人能够证明其持有人身份的方式;和
    (四)  已向持有人交付货物的确认方式,或根据第十条第二款或第四十七条第一款第一项第2目和第三项,可转让电子运输记录已失去效力的确认方式。
    二、本条第一款中的程序应当在合同事项中载明且易于查核。
Article 10  Replacement of negotiable transport document or negotiable electronic transport record
1. If a negotiable transport document has been issued and the carrier and the holder agree to replace that document by a negotiable electronic transport record:
(a) The holder shall surrender the negotiable transport document, or all of them if more than one has been issued, to the carrier;
(b) The carrier shall issue to the holder a negotiable electronic transport record that includes a statement that it replaces the negotiable transport document; and
(c) The negotiable transport document ceases thereafter to have any effect or validity.
2. If a negotiable electronic transport record has been issued and the carrier and the holder agree to replace that electronic transport record by a negotiable transport document:
(a) The carrier shall issue to the holder, in place of the electronic transport record, a negotiable transport document that includes a statement that it replaces the negotiable electronic transport record; and
(b) The electronic transport record ceases thereafter to have any effect or validity.
    第十条
可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录的替换
    一、如果可转让运输单证已签发,且承运人与持有人约定以可转让电子运输记录替换该运输单证:
    (一)持有人应向承运人移交该可转让运输单证,若签发的单证不止一份,应移交所有单证;
    (二)承运人应向持有人签发可转让电子运输纪录,其中应包括一项替换该运输单证的声明;并且
    (三)该运输单证随即失去效力。
    二、如果可转让电子运输记录已签发,且承运人与持有人约定以可转让运输单证替换该电子运输记录:
    (一)承运人应向持有人签发替换该电子运输记录的可转让运输单证,其中应包括一项替换该电子运输记录的声明;并且
    (二)该电子运输记录随即失去效力。
Chapter 4  Obligations of the carrier
第四章
承运人的义务
Article 11  Carriage and delivery of the goods
The carrier shall, subject to this Convention and in accordance with the terms of the contract of carriage, carry the goods to the place of destination and deliver them to the consignee.
第十一条
货物的运输和交付
    承运人应根据本公约,按照运输合同的条款将货物运至目的地并交给收货人。
Article 12  Period of responsibility of the carrier
1. The period of responsibility of the carrier for the goods under this Convention begins when the carrier or a performing party receives the goods for carriage and ends when the goods are delivered.
2. (a) If the law or regulations of the place of receipt require the goods to be handed over to an authority or other third party from which the carrier may collect them, the period of responsibility of the carrier begins when the carrier collects the goods from the authority or other third party.
(b) If the law or regulations of the place of delivery require the carrier to hand over the goods to an authority or other third party from which the consignee may collect them, the period of responsibility of the carrier ends when the carrier hands the goods over to the authority or other third party.
3. For the purpose of determining the carrier's period of responsibility, the parties may agree on the time and location of receipt and delivery of the goods, but a provision in a contract of carriage is void to the extent that it provides that:
(a) The time of receipt of the goods is subsequent to the beginning of their initial loading under the contract of carriage; or
(b) The time of delivery of the goods is prior to the completion of their final unloading under the contract of carriage.
第十二条
承运人的责任期
    一、承运人根据本公约对货物的责任期,自承运人或履约方为运输而接收货物时开始,至货物交付时终止。
    二、(一)  收货地的法律或条例要求将货物交给某当局或其他第三方,承运人可以从该当局或该其他第三方提取货物的,承运人的责任期自承运人从该当局或从该其他第三方提取货物时开始。
    (二)交货地的法律或条例要求将货物交给某当局或其他第三方,收货人可以从该当局或该其他第三方提取货物的,承运人的责任期至承运人将货物交给该当局或该其他第三方时终止。
    三、为确定承运人的责任期,各当事人可以约定接收和交付货物的时间和地点,但运输合同条款作下述规定的即为无效:
    (一)接收货物的时间是在根据运输合同开始最初装货之后;或
    (二)交付货物的时间是在根据运输合同完成最后卸货之前。
Article 13  Specific obligations
1. The carrier shall during the period of its responsibility as defined in article 12, and subject to article 26, properly and carefully receive, load, handle, stow, carry, keep, care for, unload and deliver the goods.
2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this article, and without prejudice to the other provisions in chapter 4 and to chapters 5 to 7, the carrier and the shipper may agree that the loading, handling, stowing or unloading of the goods is to be performed by the shipper, the documentary shipper or the consignee. Such an agreement shall be referred to in the contract particulars.
第十三条
特定义务
    一、在第十二条规定的责任期内,除须遵循第二十六条的规定外,承运人应妥善而谨慎地接收、装载、操作、积载、运输、保管、照料、卸载并交付货物。
    二、虽有本条第一款规定,在不影响第四章其他规定以及第五章至第七章规定的情况下,承运人与托运人可以约定由托运人、单证托运人或收货人装载、操作、积载或卸载货物。此种约定应在合同事项中载明。
Article 14  Specific obligations applicable to the voyage by sea
The carrier is bound before, at the beginning of, and during the voyage by sea to exercise due diligence to:
(a) Make and keep the ship seaworthy;
(b) Properly crew, equip and supply the ship and keep the ship so crewed, equipped and supplied throughout the voyage; and
(c) Make and keep the holds and all other parts of the ship in which the goods are carried, and any containers supplied by the carrier in or upon which the goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation.
第十四条
适用于海上航程的特定义务
    承运人必须在开航前、开航当时和海上航程中恪尽职守:
    (一)使船舶处于且保持适航状态;
    (二)妥善配备船员、装备船舶和补给供应品,且在整个航程中保持此种配备、装备和补给;并且
    (三)使货舱、船舶所有其他载货处所和由承运人提供的载货集装箱适于且能安全接收、运输和保管货物,且保持此种状态。
Article 15  Goods that may become a danger
Notwithstanding articles 11 and 13, the carrier or a performing party may decline to receive or to load, and may take such other measures as are reasonable, including unloading, destroying, or rendering goods harmless, if the goods are, or reasonably appear likely to become during the carrier's period of responsibility, an actual danger to persons, property or the environment.
 第十五条
可能形成危险的货物
    虽有第十一条和第十三条规定,如果在承运人责任期内货物可能或有理由认为似乎可能对人身、财产或环境形成实际危险,承运人或履约方可以拒绝接收或装载货物,且可以采取包括将货物卸下、销毁或使之不能致害等其他合理措施。
Article 16  Sacrifice of the goods during the voyage by sea
Notwithstanding articles 11, 13, and 14, the carrier or a performing party may sacrifice goods at sea when the sacrifice is reasonably made for the common safety or for the purpose of preserving from peril human life or other property involved in the common adventure.
    第十六条
    海上航程期间牺牲货物
    虽有第十一条、第十三条和第十四条规定,承运人或履约方仍可以在海上牺牲货物,但应是为了共同安全,或是为了保全同一航程中人命或其他财产,使之免遭危险而合理作出此种牺牲。
Chapter 5  Liability of the carrier for loss, damage or delay
    第五章
    承运人对灭失、损坏或迟延所负的赔偿责任
Article 17  Basis of liability
1. The carrier is liable for loss of or damage to the goods, as well as for delay in delivery, if the claimant proves that the loss, damage, or delay, or the event or circumstance that caused or contributed to it took place during the period of the carrier's responsibility as defined in chapter 4.
2. The carrier is relieved of all or part of its liability pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article if it proves that the cause or one of the causes of the loss, damage, or delay is not attributable to its fault or to the fault of any person referred to in article 18.
3. The carrier is also relieved of all or part of its liability pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article if, alternatively to proving the absence of fault as provided in paragraph 2 of this article, it proves that one or more of the following events or circumstances caused or contributed to the loss, damage, or delay:
(a) Act of God;
(b) Perils, dangers, and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters;
(c) War, hostilities, armed conflict, piracy, terrorism, riots, and civil commotions;
(d) Quarantine restrictions; interference by or impediments created by governments, public authorities, rulers, or people including detention, arrest, or seizure not attributable to the carrier or any person referred to in article 18;
(e) Strikes, lockouts, stoppages, or restraints of labour;
(f) Fire on the ship;
(g) Latent defects not discoverable by due diligence;
(h) Act or omission of the shipper, the documentary shipper, the controlling party, or any other person for whose acts the shipper or the documentary shipper is liable pursuant to article 33 or 34;
(i) Loading, handling, stowing, or unloading of the goods performed pursuant to an agreement in accordance with article 13, paragraph 2, unless the carrier or a performing party performs such activity on behalf of the shipper, the documentary shipper or the consignee;
(j) Wastage in bulk or weight or any other loss or damage arising from inherent defect, quality, or vice of the goods;
(k) Insufficiency or defective condition of packing or marking not performed by or on behalf of the carrier;
(l) Saving or attempting to save life at sea;
(m) Reasonable measures to save or attempt to save property at sea;
(n) Reasonable measures to avoid or attempt to avoid damage to the environment; or
(o) Acts of the carrier in pursuance of the powers conferred by articles 15 and 16.
4. Notwithstanding paragraph 3 of this article, the carrier is liable for all or part of the loss, damage, or delay:
(a) If the claimant proves that the fault of the carrier or of a person referred to in article 18 caused or contributed to the event or circumstance on which the carrier relies; or
(b) If the claimant proves that an event or circumstance not listed in paragraph 3 of this article contributed to the loss, damage, or delay, and the carrier cannot prove that this event or circumstance is not attributable to its fault or to the fault of any person refer,red to in article 18.
5. The carrier is also liable, notwithstanding paragraph 3 of this article, for all or part of the loss, damage, or delay if:
(a) The claimant proves that the loss, damage, or delay was or was probably caused by or contributed to by (i) the unseaworthiness of the ship; (ii) the improper crewing, equipping, and supplying of the ship; or (iii) the fact that the holds or other parts of the ship in which the goods are carried, or any containers supplied by the carrier in or upon which the goods are carried, were not fit and safe for reception, carriage, and preservation of the goods; and
(b) The carrier is unable to prove either that: (i) none of the events or circumstances referred to in subparagraph 5 (a) of this article caused the loss, damage, or delay; or (ii) it complied with its obligation to exercise due diligence pursuant to article 14.
6. When the carrier is relieved of part of its liability pursuant to this article, the carrier is liable only for that part of the loss, damage or delay that is attributable to the event or circumstance for which it is liable pursuant to this article.
    第十七条
    赔偿责任基础
    一、如果索赔人证明,货物灭失、损坏或迟延交付,或造成、促成了灭失、损坏或迟延交付的事件或情形是在第四章规定的承运人责任期内发生的,承运人应对货物灭失、损坏和迟延交付负赔偿责任。
    二、如果承运人证明,灭失、损坏或迟延交付的原因或原因之一不能归责于承运人本人的过失或第十八条述及的任何人的过失,可免除承运人根据本条第一款所负的全部或部分赔偿责任。
    三、除证明不存在本条第二款所述的过失之外,如果承运人证明下列一种或数种事件或情形造成、促成了灭失、损坏或迟延交付,也可免除承运人根据本条第一款规定所负的全部或部分赔偿责任:
    (一)天灾;
    (二)海上或其他通航水域的风险、危险和事故;
    (三)  战争、敌对行动、武装冲突、海盗、恐怖活动、暴乱和内乱;
    (四)检疫限制;政府、公共当局、统治者或民众的干涉或造成的障碍,包括非由承运人或第十八条述及的任何人所造成的滞留、扣留或扣押;
    (五)罢工、关厂、停工或劳动受限;
    (六)船上发生火灾;
    (七)虽恪尽职守仍无法发现的潜在缺陷;
    (八)托运人、单证托运人、控制方或根据第三十三条或第三十四条托运人或单证托运人对其作为承担责任的其他任何人的作为或不作为;
    (九)按照第十三条第二款所述及的约定进行的货物装载、操作、积载或卸载,除非承运人或履约方代表托运人、单证托运人或收货人实施此项活动;
    (十)  由于货物固有缺陷、品质或瑕疵而造成的数量或重量损耗或其他任何灭失或损坏;
    (十一)非由承运人或代其行事的人所做包装不良或标志欠缺、不清;
    (十二)海上救助或试图救助人命;
    (十三)海上救助或试图救助财产的合理措施;
    (十四)避免或试图避免对环境造成危害的合理措施;或
    (十五)承运人根据第十五条和第十六条所赋权利的作为。
    四、虽有本条第三款规定,有下列情形之一的,承运人仍应对灭失、损坏或迟延交付的全部或部分负赔偿责任:
    (一)索赔人证明,承运人或第十八条述及的人的过失造成、促成了承运人所依据的事件或情形;或
    (二) 索赔人证明,本条第三款所列事件或情形以外的事件或情形促成了灭失、损坏或迟延交付,且承运人无法证明,该事件或情形既不能归责于其本人的过失,也不能归责于第十八条述及的任何人的过失。
    五、虽有本条第三款规定,在下列情况下,承运人还应对灭失、损坏或迟延交付的全部或部分负赔偿责任:
    (一)索赔人证明,造成或可能造成或促成灭失、损坏或迟延交付的原因是:1.船舶不适航;2.配备船员、装备船舶和补给供应品不当;或3.货舱、船舶其他载货处所或由承运人提供的载货集装箱不适于且不能安全接收、运输和保管货物;并且
    (二)承运人无法证明:1.本条第五款第一项述及的任何事件或情形未造成灭失、损坏或迟延交付;或2.承运人已遵守第十四条规定的恪尽职守的义务。
    六、承运人根据本条规定被免除部分赔偿责任的,承运人仅对根据本条应由其负赔偿责任的事件或情形所造成的那部分灭失、损坏或迟延交付负赔偿责任。
Article 18  Liability of the carrier for other persons
The carrier is liable for the breach of its obligations under this Convention caused by the acts or omissions of:
(a) Any performing party;
(b) The master or crew of the ship;
(c) Employees of the carrier or a performing party; or
(d) Any other person that performs or undertakes to perform any of the carrier's obligations under the contract of carriage, to the extent that the person acts, either directly or indirectly, at the carrier's request or under the carrier's supervision or control.
第十八条
承运人为其他人负赔偿责任
    如果下列人的作为或不作为违反本公约对承运人规定的义务,承运人应负赔偿责任:
    (一)任何履约方;
    (二)船长或船员;
    (三)承运人的受雇人或履约方的受雇人;或
    (四)履行或承诺履行运输合同规定的承运人义务的其他任何人,以该人按照承运人的要求,或在承运人的监督或控制下直接或间接作为为限。
Article 19  Liability of maritime performing parties
1. A maritime performing party is subject to the obligations and liabilities imposed on the carrier under this Convention and is entitled to the carrier's defences and limits of liability as provided for in this Convention if:
(a) The maritime performing party received the goods for carriage in a Contracting State, or delivered them in a Contracting State, or performed its activities with respect to the goods in a port in a Contracting State; and
(b) The occurrence that caused the loss, damage or delay took place: (i) during the period between the arrival of the goods at the port of loading of the ship and their departure from the port of discharge from the ship; (ii) while the maritime performing party had custody of the goods; or (iii) at any other time to the extent that it was participating in the performance of any of the activities contemplated by the contract of carriage.
2. If the carrier agrees to assume obligations other than those imposed on the carrier under this Convention, or agrees that the limits of its liability are higher than the limits specified under this Convention, a maritime performing party is not bound by this agreement unless it expressly agrees to accept such obligations or such higher limits.
3. A maritime performing party is liable for the breach of its obligations under this Convention caused by the acts or omissions of any person to which it has entrusted the performance of any of the carrier's obligations under the contract of carriage under the conditions set out in paragraph 1 of this article.
4. Nothing in this Convention imposes liability on the master or crew of the ship or on an employee of the carrier or of a maritime performing party.
 第十九条
海运履约方的赔偿责任
    一、符合下列条件的,海运履约方必须承担本公约对承运人规定的义务和赔偿责任,且有权享有本公约对承运人规定的抗辩和赔偿责任限制:
    (一)  海运履约方在一缔约国为运输而接收了货物或在一缔约国交付了货物,或在一缔约国某一港口履行了与货物有关的各种活动;并且
    (二)造成灭失、损坏或迟延交付的事件发生在:1.货物到达船舶装货港至货物离开船舶卸货港的期间内;2.货物在海运履约方掌管期间;或3.海运履约方参与履行运输合同所载列任何活动的其他任何时间内。
    二、承运人约定在本公约对其规定的义务范围之外承担义务的,或约定其赔偿责任限额高于本公约所规定的限额的,海运履约方不受该约定的约束,除非海运履约方明示约定接受该义务或该更高限额。
    三、符合本条第一款所列条件的,对于受海运履约方委托履行运输合同约定的承运人义务的人违反本公约对海运履约方规定的义务的作为或不作为,海运履约方负赔偿责任。
    四、本公约规定概不要求船长或船员、承运人的受雇人或海运履约方的受雇人负赔偿责任。
Article 20  Joint and several liability
1. If the carrier and one or more maritime performing parties are liable for the loss of, damage to, or delay in delivery of the goods, their liability is joint and several but only up to the limits provided for under this Convention.
2. Without prejudice to article 61, the aggregate liability of all such persons shall not exceed the overall limits of liability under this Convention.
    第二十条
    连带赔偿责任
    一、对于货物灭失、损坏或迟延交付,承运人和一个或数个海运履约方均负有赔偿责任的,其赔偿责任为连带责任,但仅限于本公约所规定的限额。
    二、在不影响第六十一条的情况下,上述所有人的累计赔偿责任不得超过本公约所规定的赔偿责任总限额。
Article 21  Delay
Delay in delivery occurs when the goods are not delivered at the place of destination provided for in the contract of carriage within the time agreed.
第二十一条
迟延
    未在约定时间内在运输合同约定的目的地交付货物,为迟延交付。
Article 22  Calculation of compensation
1. Subject to article 59, the compensation payable by the carrier for loss of or damage to the goods is calculated by reference to the value of such goods at the place and time of delivery established in accordance with article 43.
2. The value of the goods is fixed according to the commodity exchange price or, if there is no such price, according to their market price or, if there is no commodity exchange price or market price, by reference to the normal value of the goods of the same kind and quality at the place of delivery.
3. In case of loss of or damage to the goods, the carrier is not liable for payment of any compensation beyond what is provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article except when the carrier and the shipper have agreed to calculate compensation in a different manner within the limits of chapter 16.
第二十二条
赔偿额的计算
    一、除须遵循第五十九条的规定外,承运人对货物灭失或损坏应支付的赔偿额,参照货物在根据第四十三条确定的交货地和交货时间的价值计算。
    二、货物的价值根据商品交易价格确定,无此种价格的,根据其市场价格确定,既无商品交易价格又无市场价格的,参照交货地同种类和同品质货物的通常价值确定。
    三、货物发生灭失或损坏的,承运人对超出本条第一款和第二款所规定的赔偿额不负任何赔偿责任,除非承运人与托运人在第十六章的限度内约定了赔偿额的不同计算方法。
Article 23  Notice in case of loss, damage or delay
1. The carrier is presumed, in absence of proof to the contrary, to have delivered the goods according to their description in the contract particulars unless notice of loss of or damage to the goods, indicating the general nature of such loss or damage, was given to the carrier or the performing party that delivered the goods before or at the time of the delivery, or, if the loss or damage is not apparent, within seven working days at the place of delivery after the delivery of the goods.
2. Failure to provide the notice referred to in this article to the carrier or the performing party shall not affect the right to claim compensation for loss of or damage to the goods under this Convention, nor shall it affect the allocation of the burden of proof set out in article 17.
3. The notice referred to in this article is not required in respect of loss or damage that is ascertained in a joint inspection of the goods by the person to which they have been delivered and the carrier or the maritime performing party against which liability is being asserted.
4. No compensation in respect of delay is payable unless notice of loss due to delay was given to the carrier within twenty-one consecutive days of delivery of the goods.
5. When the notice referred to in this article is given to the performing party that delivered the goods, it has the same effect as if that notice was given to the carrier, and notice given to the carrier has the same effect as a notice given to a maritime performing party.
6. In the case of any actual or apprehended loss or damage, the parties to the dispute shall give all reasonable facilities to each other for inspecting and tallying the goods and shall provide access to records and documents relevant to the carriage of the goods.
第二十三条
发生灭失、损坏或迟延时的通知
    一、除非已在交货前或交货时,或在灭失或损坏不明显的情况下,在交货后交货地的七个工作日内向承运人或向实际交付货物的履约方提交了表明此种灭失或损坏一般性质的货物灭失或损坏通知,否则,在无相反证据的情况下,推定承运人已按照合同事项中有关货物的记载交付了货物。
    二、未向承运人或履约方提交本条述及的通知,不得影响根据本公约对货物灭失或损坏索赔的权利,也不得影响第十七条所规定的举证责任分担。
    三、被交付货物的人与承运人或与当时被要求承担赔偿责任的海运履约方对货物进行了联合检验的,无须就联合检验所查明的灭失或损坏提交本条述及的通知。
    四、除非在交货后二十一个连续日内向承运人提交了迟延造成损失的通知,否则无须就迟延支付任何赔偿金。
    五、向实际交付货物的履约方提交本条述及的通知,与向承运人提交该通知具有同等效力;向承运人提交通知,与向海运履约方提交通知具有同等效力。
    六、对于任何实际发生的或预想发生的灭失或损坏,争议各方当事人应为检验和清点货物相互提供一切合理便利,且应为查询有关货物运输的记录和单证提供机会。
Chapter 6  Additional provisions relating to particular stages of carriage
第六章
有关特定运输阶段的补充条款
Article 24  Deviation
When pursuant to applicable law a deviation constitutes a breach of the carrier's obligations, such deviation of itself shall not deprive the carrier or a maritime performing party of any defence or limitation of this Convention, except to the extent provided in article 61.
第二十四条
绕航
    如果绕航根据适用的法律构成违反承运人义务,承运人或海运履约方不得因此被剥夺本公约为其提供的任何抗辩或赔偿责任限制,但第六十一条规定的情形除外。
Article 25  Deck cargo on ships
1. Goods may be carried on the deck of a ship only if:
(a) Such carriage is required by law;
(b) They are carried in or on containers or vehicles that are fit for deck carriage, and the decks are specially fitted to carry such containers or vehicles; or
(c) The carriage on deck is in accordance with the contract of carriage, or the customs, usages or practices of the trade in question.
2. The provisions of this Convention relating to the liability of the carrier apply to the loss of, damage to or delay in the delivery of goods carried on deck pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article, but the carrier is not liable for loss of or damage to such goods, or delay in their delivery, caused by the special risks involved in their carriage on deck when the goods are carried in accordance with subparagraphs 1 (a) or (c) of this article.
3. If the goods have been carried on deck in cases other than those permitted pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article, the carrier is liable for loss of or damage to the goods or delay in their delivery that is exclusively caused by their carriage on deck, and is not entitled to the defences provided for in article 17.
4. The carrier is not entitled to invoke subparagraph 1 (c) of this article against a third party that has acquired a negotiable transport document or a negotiable electronic transport record in good faith, unless the contract particulars state that the goods may be carried on deck.
5. If the carrier and shipper expressly agreed that the goods would be carried under deck, the carrier is not entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability for any loss of, damage to or delay in the delivery of the goods to the extent that such loss, damage, or delay resulted from their carriage on deck.
第二十五条
船舶上的舱面货
    一、在船舶舱面上载运货物,只能限于下列情形:
    (一)根据法律的要求进行此种运输;
    (二)货物载于适合舱面运输的集装箱内或车辆内,而舱面专门适于载运此类集装箱或车辆;或
    (三)舱面运输符合运输合同或相关行业的习惯、惯例或做法。
    二、本公约有关承运人赔偿责任的规定,适用于根据本条第一款在舱面上载运的货物的灭失、损坏或迟延交付,但根据本条第二一款第一项或第三项载运货物的,对于舱面载运货物涉及的特殊风险所造成的货物灭失、损坏或迟延交付,承运人不负赔偿责任。
    三、在舱面上载运货物,不是本条第一款所准许的情形的,对于完全由于舱面载运货物所造成的货物灭失、损坏或迟延交付,承运人负赔偿责任,且无权享有第十七条规定的抗辩。
    四、第三方已善意取得可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录的,承运人无权对其援用本条第一款第三项的规定,除非合同事项载明可以在舱面上载运货物。
    五、承运人与托运人明确约定货物将载于舱内的,如果货物载于舱面造成任何灭失、损坏或迟延交付,对于此种灭失、损坏或迟延交付,承运人无权享有限制赔偿责任的利益。
Article 26  Carriage preceding or subsequent to sea carriage
When loss of or damage to goods, or an event or circumstance causing a delay in their delivery, occurs during the carrier's period of responsibility but solely before their loading onto the ship or solely after their discharge from the ship, the provisions of this Convention do not prevail over those provisions of another international instrument that, at the time of such loss, damage or event or circumstance causing delay:
(a) Pursuant to the provisions of such international instrument would have applied to all or any of the carrier's activities if the shipper had made a separate and direct contract with the carrier in respect of the particular stage of carriage where the loss of, or damage to goods, or an event or circumstance causing delay in their delivery occurred;
(b) Specifically provide for the carrier's liability, limitation of liability, or time for suit; and
(c) Cannot be departed from by contract either at all or to the detriment of the shipper under that instrument.
第二十六条
海上运输之前或之后的运输
    如果货物灭失、损坏或造成迟延交付的事件或情形发生在承运人的责任期内,但发生的时间仅在货物装上船舶之前或仅在货物卸离船舶之后,本公约的规定不得优先于另一国际文书的下述条文,在此种灭失、损坏或造成迟延交付的事件或情形发生时:
    (一)根据该国际文书的规定,如果托运人已就发生货物灭失、损坏或造成货物迟延交付的事件或情形的特定运输阶段与承运人订有单独和直接的合同,本应适用于承运人全部活动或任何活动的条文;
    (二)就承运人的赔偿责任、赔偿责任限制或时效作了具体规定的条文;和
    (三)根据该文书,完全不能通过订立合同加以背离的条文,或不能在损害托运人利益的情况下通过订立合同加以背离的条文。
Chapter 7  Obligations of the shipper to the carrier
    第七章
    托运人对承运人的义务
Article 27  Delivery for carriage
1. Unless otherwise agreed in the contract of carriage, the shipper shall deliver the goods ready for carriage. In any event, the shipper shall deliver the goods in such condition that they will withstand the intended carriage, including their loading, handling, stowing, lashing and securing, and unloading, and that they will not cause harm to persons or property.
2. The shipper shall properly and carefully perform any obligation assumed under an agreement made pursuant to article 13, paragraph 2.
3. When a container is packed or a vehicle is loaded by the shipper, the shipper shall properly and carefully stow, lash and secure the contents in or on the container or vehicle, and in such a way that they will not cause harm to persons or property.
第二十七条
交付运输
    一、除非运输合同另有约定,否则托运人应交付备妥待运的货物。在任何情况下,托运人交付的货物应处于能够承受住预定运输的状态,包括货物的装载、操作、积载、绑扎、加固和卸载,且不会对人身或财产造成损害。
    二、根据第十三条第二款订有约定的,托运人应妥善而谨慎地履行根据该约定承担的任何义务。
    三、集装箱或车辆由托运人装载的,托运人应妥善而谨慎地积载、绑扎和加固集装箱内或车辆内的货物,使之不会对人身或财产造成损害。
Article 28  Cooperation of the shipper and the carrier in providing information and instructions
The carrier and the shipper shall respond to requests from each other to provide information and instructions required for the proper handling and carriage of the goods if the information is in the requested party's possession or the instructions are within the requested party's reasonable ability to provide and they are not otherwise reasonably available to the requesting party.
    第二十八条
    托运人与承运人在提供信息和指示方面的合作
    如果有关货物正确操作和运输的信息处于被请求方的占有之下,或有关货物正确操作和运输的指示是在被请求方能够合理提供的范围之内,且请求方无法以其他合理方式获取此种信息和指示,承运人和托运人应就对方提出的提供此种信息和指示的请求作出响应。
Article 29  Shipper's obligation to provide information, instructions and documents
1. The shipper shall provide to the carrier in a timely manner such information, instructions and documents relating to the goods that are not otherwise reasonably available to the carrier, and that are reasonably necessary:
(a) For the proper handling and carriage of the goods, including precautions to be taken by the carrier or a performing party; and
(b) For the carrier to comply with law, regulations or other requirements of public authorities in connection with the intended carriage, provided that the carrier notifies the shipper in a timely manner of the information, instructions and documents it requires.
2. Nothing in this article affects any specific obligation to provide certain information, instructions and documents related to the goods pursuant to law, regulations or other requirements of public authorities in connection with the intended carriage.
    第二十九条
    托运人提供信息、指示和文件的义务
    一、托运人应及时向承运人提供承运人无法以其他合理方式获取,且是为下述目的而合理需要的有关货物的信息、指示和文件:
    (一)为了正确操作和运输货物,包括由承运人或履约方采取预防措施;并且
    (二)为了使承运人遵守公共当局有关预定运输的法律、条例或其他要求,但承运人须及时将其需要信息、指示和文件事宜通知托运人。
    二、本条规定概不影响根据公共当局有关预定运输的法律、条例或其他要求,提供有关货物的某些信息、指示和文件的任何特定义务。
Article 30  Basis of shipper's liability to the carrier
1. The shipper is liable for loss or damage sustained by the carrier if the carrier proves that such loss or damage was caused by a breach of the shipper's obligations under this Convention.
2. Except in respect of loss or damage caused by a breach by the shipper of its obligations pursuant to articles 31, paragraph 2, and 32, the shipper is relieved of all or part of its liability if the cause or one of the causes of the loss or damage is not attributable to its fault or to the fault of any person referred to in article 34.
3. When the shipper is relieved of part of its liability pursuant to this article, the shipper is liable only for that part of the loss or damage that is attributable to its fault or to the fault of any person referred to in article 34.
第三十条
托运人对承运人赔偿责任的基础
    一、对于承运人遭受的灭失或损坏,如果承运人证明,此种灭失或损坏是由于违反本公约规定的托运人义务而造成的,托运人应负赔偿责任。
    二、灭失或损坏的原因或原因之一不能归责于托运人本人的过失或第三十四条述及的任何人的过失的,免除托运人的全部或部分赔偿责任,但托运人违反第三十一条第二款和第三十二条对其规定的义务所造成的灭失或损坏,不在此列。
    三、托运人根据本条被免除部分赔偿责任的,托运人仅对因其本人的过失或第三十四条述及的任何人的过失所造成的那部分灭失或损坏负赔偿责任。
Article 31  Information for compilation of contract particulars
1. The shipper shall provide to the carrier, in a timely manner, accurate information required for the compilation of the contract particulars and the issuance of the transport documents or electronic transport records, including the particulars referred to in article 36, paragraph 1; the name of the party to be identified as the shipper in the contract particulars; the name of the consignee, if any; and the name of the person to whose order the transport document or electronic transport record is to be issued, if any.
2. The shipper is deemed to have guaranteed the accuracy at the time of receipt by the carrier of the information that is provided according to paragraph 1 of this article. The shipper shall indemnify the carrier against loss or damage resulting from the inaccuracy of such information.
第三十一条
拟定合同事项所需要的信息
    一、托运人应及时向承运人提供拟定合同事项以及签发运输单证或电子运输记录所需要的准确信息,包括第三十六条第一款所述及的事项;合同事项中拟载明为托运人的当事人名称;有收货人的,收货人名称;须凭指示签发运输单证或电子运输记录的,指示人名称。
    二、承运人收到根据本条第一款提供的信息时,理当认为托运人已对信息的准确性给予保证。托运人应就此种信息不准确所导致的灭失或损坏向承运人作出赔偿。
Article 32  Special rules on dangerous goods
When goods by their nature or character are, or reasonably appear likely to become, a danger to persons, property or the environment:
(a) The shipper shall inform the carrier of the dangerous nature or character of the goods in a timely manner before they are delivered to the carrier or a performing party. If the shipper fails to do so and the carrier or performing party does not otherwise have knowledge of their dangerous nature or character, the shipper is liable to the carrier for loss or damage resulting from such failure to inform; and
(b) The shipper shall mark or label dangerous goods in accordance with any law, regulations or other requirements of public authorities that apply during any stage of the intended carriage of the goods. If the shipper fails to do so, it is liable to the carrier for loss or damage resulting from such failure.
第三十二条
危险货物特别规则
    当货物因本身性质或特性而已对人身、财产或环境形成危险,或适度显现有可能形成此种危险时:
    (一)托运人应在货物交付给承运人或履约方之前,及时将货物的危险性质或特性通知承运人。托运人未履行此项义务,且承运人或履约方无法以其他方式知道货物危险性质或特性的,托运人应就未发通知所导致的灭失或损坏向承运人负赔偿责任;
    (二)托运人应根据货物预定运输任何阶段所适用的公共当局的法律、条例或其他要求,对危险货物加标志或标签。托运人未履行此项义务的,托运人应就由此导致的灭失或损坏向承运人负赔偿责任。
Article 33  Assumption of shipper's rights and obligations by the documentary shipper
1. A documentary shipper is subject to the obligations and liabilities imposed on the shipper pursuant to this chapter and pursuant to article 55, and is entitled to the shipper's rights and defences provided by this chapter and by chapter 13.
2. Paragraph 1 of this article does not affect the obligations, liabilities, rights or defences of the shipper.
    第三十三条
    单证托运人享有托运人的权利并承担其义务
    一、单证托运人必须承担本章和第五十五条对托运人规定的义务和赔偿责任,且有权享有本章和第十三章为托运人提供的权利和抗辩。
    二、本条第一款规定不影响托运人的义务、赔偿责任、权利或抗辩。
Article 34  Liability of the shipper for other persons
The shipper is liable for the breach of its obligations under this Convention caused by the acts or omissions of any person, including employees, agents and subcontractors, to which it has entrusted the performance of any of its obligations, but the shipper is not liable for acts or omissions of the carrier or a performing party acting on behalf of the carrier, to which the shipper has entrusted the performance of its obligations.
第三十四条
托运人为其他人负赔偿责任
    托运人委托包括受雇人、代理人和分合同人在内的任何人履行托运人任何义务的,对于此等人的作为或不作为造成违反本公约规定的托运人义务,托运人负赔偿责任,但托运人委托承运人或代表承运人行事的履约方履行托运人义务的,对于此等人的作为或不作为,托运人不负赔偿责任。
Chapter 8  Transport documents and electronic transport records
    第八章
    运输单证和电子运输记录
Article 35  Issuance of the transport document or the electronic transport record
Unless the shipper and the carrier have agreed not to use a transport document or an electronic transport record, or it is the custom, usage or practice of the trade not to use one, upon delivery of the goods for carriage to the carrier or performing party, the shipper or, if the shipper consents, the documentary shipper, is entitled to obtain from the carrier, at the shipper's option:
(a) A non-negotiable transport document or, subject to article 8, subparagraph (a), a non-negotiable electronic transport record; or
(b) An appropriate negotiable transport document or, subject to article 8, subparagraph (a), a negotiable electronic transport record, unless the shipper and the carrier have agreed not to use a negotiable transport document or negotiable electronic transport record, or it is the custom, usage or practice of the trade not to use one.
    第三十五条
    运输单证或电子运输记录的签发
    除非托运人与承运人已约定不使用运输单证或电子运输记录,或不使用运输单证或电子运输记录是行业习惯、惯例或做法,否则,货物一经向承运人或履约方交付运输,托运人,或经托运人同意的单证托运人,有权按照托运人的选择,从承运人处获得:
    (一)不可转让运输单证,或,符合第八条第一项规定的,不可转让电子运输记录;或
    (二)适当的可转让运输单证,或,符合第八条第一项规定的,可转让电子运输记录,除非托运人与承运人已约定不使用可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录,或不使用可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录是行业习惯、惯例或做法。
Article 36  Contract particulars
1. The contract particulars in the transport document or electronic transport record referred to in article 35 shall include the following information, as furnished by the shipper:
(a) A description of the goods as appropriate for the transport;
(b) The leading marks necessary for identification of the goods;
(c) The number of packages or pieces, or the quantity of goods; and
(d) The weight of the goods, if furnished by the shipper.
2. The contract particulars in the transport document or electronic transport record referred to in article 35 shall also include:
(a) A statement of the apparent order and condition of the goods at the time the carrier or a performing party receives them for carriage;
(b) The name and address of the carrier;
(c) The date on which the carrier or a performing party received the goods, or on which the goods were loaded on board the ship, or on which the transport document or electronic transport record was issued; and
(d) If the transport document is negotiable, the number of originals of the negotiable transport document, when more than one original is issued.
3. The contract particulars in the transport document or electronic transport record referred to in article 35 shall further include:
(a) The name and address of the consignee, if named by the shipper;
(b) The name of a ship, if specified in the contract of carriage;
(c) The place of receipt and, if known to the carrier, the place of delivery; and
(d) The port of loading and the port of discharge, if specified in the contract of carriage.
4. For the purposes of this article, the phrase "apparent order and condition of the goods" in subparagraph 2 (a) of this article refers to the order and condition of the goods based on:
(a) A reasonable external inspection of the goods as packaged at the time the shipper delivers them to the carrier or a performing party; and
(b) Any additional inspection that the carrier or a performing party actually performs before issuing the transport document or electronic transport record.
第三十六条
合同事项
    一、第三十五条述及的运输单证或电子运输记录中的合同事项应包括由托运人提供的下列信息:
    (一)适合于运输的货名;
    (二)识别货物所必需的主标志;
    (三)货物包数、件数或数量;和
    (四)货物重量(如果已由托运人提供)。
    二、第三十五条述及的运输单证或电子运输记录中的合同事项还应包括:
    (一)承运人或履约方收到待运货物时货物表面状况的说明;
    (二)承运人名称和地址;
    (三)承运人或履约方收到货物日期、货物装船日期或运输单证或电子运输记录签发日期;和
    (四)运输单证可转让,且签发一份以上正本的,可转让运输单证的正本份数。
    三、第三十五条述及的运输单证或电子运输记录中的合同事项还应包括:
    (一)收货人的名称和地址(如果收货人已由托运人指定);
    (二)船舶名称(如果已在运输合同中指明);
    (三)收货地和交货地(如果承运人已知道交货地);和
    (四)装货港和卸货港(如果已在运输合同中指明)。
    4.  就本条而言,本条第二款第一项中“货物表面状况”一词是指在下述基础上确定的货物状况:
    (一)货物由托运人交付给承运人或履约方时对所装载货物进行的合理外部检验;和
    (二)承运人或履约方在签发运输单证或电子运输记录之前实际进行的任何进一步检验。
Article 37  Identity of the carrier
1. If a carrier is identified by name in the contract particulars, any other information in the transport document or electronic transport record relating to the identity of the carrier shall have no effect to the extent that it is inconsistent with that identification.
2. If no person is identified in the contract particulars as the carrier as required pursuant to article 36, subparagraph 2 (b), but the contract particulars indicate that the goods have been loaded on board a named ship, the registered owner of that ship is presumed to be the carrier, unless it proves that the ship was under a bareboat charter at the time of the carriage and it identifies this bareboat charterer and indicates its address, in which case this bareboat charterer is presumed to be the carrier. Alternatively, the registered owner may rebut the presumption of being the carrier by identifying the carrier and indicating its address. The bareboat charterer may rebut any presumption of being the carrier in the same manner.
3. Nothing in this article prevents the claimant from proving that any person other than a person identified in the contract particulars or pursuant to paragraph 2 of this article is the carrier.
第三十七条
承运人的识别
    一、合同事项中载明承运人名称的,运输单证或电子运输记录中凡是与此不一致的有关承运人身份的其他信息一概无效。
    二、合同事项中未按第三十六条第二款第二项载明任何人为承运人,但合同事项载明货物已装上指定船舶的,推定该船舶的登记所有人为承运人,除非该登记所有人能够证明运输货物时该船舶处于光船租用之中,且能够指出该光船承租人及其地址,在这种情况下,推定该光船承租人为承运人。或,船舶登记所有人可以通过指出承运人及其地址,推翻将其当作承运人的推定。光船承租人可以按照同样方式推翻将其当作承运人的任何推定。
    三、本条规定概不妨碍索赔人证明,承运人是合同事项所载明的人以外的人,或是根据本条第二款所识别的人以外的人。
Article 38 &nb,sp;Signature
1. A transport document shall be signed by the carrier or a person acting on its behalf.
2. An electronic transport record shall include the electronic signature of the carrier or a person acting on its behalf. Such electronic signature shall identify the signatory in relation to the electronic transport record and indicate the carrier's authorization of the electronic transport record.
第三十八条
签名
    一、运输单证应由承运人或代其行事的人签名。
    二、电子运输记录应包含承运人或代其行事的人的电子签名。凭借此种电子签名,应能够识别与该电子运输记录有关的签名人,且表明承运人对该电子运输记录的授权。
Article 39  Deficiencies in the contract particulars
1. The absence or inaccuracy of one or more of the contract particulars referred to in article 36, paragraphs 1, 2 or 3, does not of itself affect the legal character or validity of the transport document or of the electronic transport record.
2. If the contract particulars include the date but fail to indicate its significance, the date is deemed to be:
(a) The date on which all of the goods indicated in the transport document or electronic transport record were loaded on board the ship, if the contract particulars indicate that the goods have been loaded on board a ship; or
(b) The date on which the carrier or a performing party received the goods, if the contract particulars do not indicate that the goods have been loaded on board a ship.
3. If the contract particulars fail to state the apparent order and condition of the goods at the time the carrier or a performing party receives them, the contract particulars are deemed to have stated that the goods were in apparent good order and condition at the time the carrier or a performing party received them.
    第三十九条
    合同事项不完备
    一、合同事项中缺少第三十六条第一款、第二款或第三款述及的一项或数项内容,或这些内容不准确,本身不影响运输单证或电子运输记录的法律性质或法律效力。
    二、合同事项包含日期而未载明其含义的:
    (一)如果合同事项载明货物已装船,该日期视为运输单证或电子运输记录中载明的全部货物的装船日期;或
    (二)如果合同事项未载明货物已装船,该日期视为承运人或履约方收到货物的日期。
    三、合同事项未载明承运人或履约方收到货物时货物表面状况的,该合同事项视为已载明承运人或履约方收到货物时货物表面状况良好。
Article 40  Qualifying the information relating to the goods in the contract particulars
1. The carrier shall qualify the information referred to in article 36, paragraph 1, to indicate that the carrier does not assume responsibility for the accuracy of the information furnished by the shipper if:
(a) The carrier has actual knowledge that any material statement in the transport document or electronic transport record is false or misleading; or
(b) The carrier has reasonable grounds to believe that a material statement in the transport document or electronic transport record is false or misleading.
2. Without prejudice to paragraph 1 of this article, the carrier may qualify the information referred to in article 36, paragraph 1, in the circumstances and in the manner set out in paragraphs 3 and 4 of this article to indicate that the carrier does not assume responsibility for the accuracy of the information furnished by the shipper.
3. When the goods are not delivered for carriage to the carrier or a performing party in a closed container or vehicle, or when they are delivered in a closed container or vehicle and the carrier or a performing party actually inspects them, the carrier may qualify the information referred to in article 36, paragraph 1, if:
(a) The carrier had no physically practicable or commercially reasonable means of checking the information furnished by the shipper, in which case it may indicate which information it was unable to check; or
(b) The carrier has reasonable grounds to believe the information furnished by the shipper to be inaccurate, in which case it may include a clause providing what it reasonably considers accurate information.
4. When the goods are delivered for carriage to the carrier or a performing party in a closed container or vehicle, the carrier may qualify the information referred to in:
(a) Article 36, subparagraphs 1 (a), (b), or (c), if:
(i) The goods inside the container or vehicle have not actually been inspected by the carrier or a performing party; and
(ii) Neither the carrier nor a performing party otherwise has actual knowledge of its contents before issuing the transport document or the electronic transport record; and
(b) Article 36, subparagraph 1 (d), if:
(i) Neither the carrier nor a performing party weighed the container or vehicle, and the shipper and the carrier had not agreed prior to the shipment that the container or vehicle would be weighed and the weight would be included in the contract particulars; or
(ii) There was no physically practicable or commercially reasonable means of checking the weight of the container or vehicle.
    第四十条
    对合同事项中货物相关信息作出保留
    一、在下列条件下,承运人应对第三十六条第一款中述及的信息作出保留,指出承运人对于托运人所提供信息的准确性不负责任:
    (一)承运人实际知道运输单证或电子运输记录中的任何重要声明有虚假或误导内容;或
    (二)承运人有合理的理由认为运输单证或电子运输记录中的任何重要声明有虚假或误导内容。
    二、在不影响本条第一款的情况下,承运人可以按照本条第三款和第四款规定的情形和方式,对第三十六条第一款中述及的信息作出保留,指出承运人对于托运人所提供信息的准确性不负责任。
    三、货物不放在封闭集装箱内或封闭车辆内交付给承运人或履约方运输,或货物放在封闭集装箱内或封闭车辆内交付且承运人或履约方实际检验了货物的,在下述条件下,承运人可以对第三十六条第一款中述及的信息作出保留:
    (一)承运人无实际可行或商业上合理的方式核对托运人提供的信息,在这种情况下,承运人可以注明其无法核对的信息;或
    (二)承运人有合理的理由认为托运人所提供的信息不准确,在这种情况下,承运人可以列入一个条款,提供其合理认为准确的信息。
    四、货物放在封闭集装箱内或封闭车辆内交付给承运人或履约方运输的,承运人可以就下列条款中述及的信息作出保留:
    (一)  第三十六条第一款第一项、第二项或第三项,条件是:
    1.  集装箱内或车辆内货物未经过承运人或履约方实际检验;并且
    2.  无论承运人还是履约方均未在签发运输单证或电子运输记录之前以其他方式实际知道集装箱内或车辆内货物的情况;和
    (二)  第三十六条第一款第四项,条件是:
    1.  无论承运人还是履约方均未对集装箱或车辆称重,且托运人和承运人均未在装运货物之前约定对集装箱或车辆称重并将其重量记载在合同事项中;或
    2.无实际可行或商业上合理的方式核对集装箱或车辆重量。
Article 41  Evidentiary effect of the contract particulars
Except to the extent that the contract particulars have been qualified in the circumstances and in the manner set out in article 40:
(a) A transport document or an electronic transport record is prima facie evidence of the carrier's receipt of the goods as stated in the contract particulars;
(b) Proof to the contrary by the carrier in respect of any contract particulars shall not be admissible, when such contract particulars are included in:
(i) A negotiable transport document or a negotiable electronic transport record that is transferred to a third party acting in good faith; or
(ii) A non-negotiable transport document that indicates that it must be surrendered in order to obtain delivery of the goods and is transferred to the consignee acting in good faith;
(c) Proof to the contrary by the carrier shall not be admissible against a consignee that in good faith has acted in reliance on any of the following contract particulars included in a non-negotiable transport document or a non-negotiable electronic transport record:
(i) The contract particulars referred to in article 36, paragraph 1, when such contract particulars are furnished by the carrier;
(ii) The number, type and identifying numbers of the containers, but not the identifying numbers of the container seals; and
(iii) The contract particulars referred to in article 36, paragraph 2.
    第四十一条
    合同事项的证据效力
    除合同事项已按照第四十条规定的情形和方式作了保留外:
    (一)运输单证或电子运输记录是承运人收到合同事项中所记载货物的初步证据;
    (二)在下列情况下,承运人就任何合同事项提出的相反证据不予接受:
    1.  此种合同事项载于已转让给善意行事第三方的可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录;或
    2.  此种合同事项载于载明必须交单提货,且已转让给善意行事收货人的不可转让运输单证。
    (三)承运人提出的针对善意行事收货人的相反证据,在该收货人依赖载于不可转让运输单证或不可转让电子运输记录中的下述任何合同事项时,不予接受:
    1.  第三十六条第一款中述及的合同事项,此种合同事项由承运人提供;
    2.  集装箱的号码、型号和识别号,而非集装箱封条的识别号;和
    3.  第三十六条第二款中述及的合同事项。
Article 42  "Freight prepaid"
If the contract particulars contain the statement "freight prepaid" or a statement of a similar nature, the carrier cannot assert against the holder or the consignee the fact that the freight has not been paid. This article does not apply if the holder or the consignee is also the shipper.
第四十二条
“预付运费”
    合同事项载有“预付运费”声明或类似性质声明的,承运人不能以运费尚未支付这一主张对抗持有人或收货人。持有人或收货人也是托运人的,本条不适用。
Chapter 9  Delivery of the goods
第九章
货物交付
Article 43  Obligation to accept delivery
When the goods have arrived at their destination, the consignee that demands delivery of the goods under the contract of carriage shall accept delivery of the goods at the time or within the time period and at the location agreed in the contract of carriage or, failing such agreement, at the time and location at which, having regard to the terms of the contract, the customs, usages or practices of the trade and the circumstances of the carriage, delivery could reasonably be expected.
第四十三条
接受交货的义务
    当货物到达目的地时,要求交付货物的收货人应在运输合同约定的时间或期限内,在运输合同约定的地点接受交货,无此种约定的,应在考虑到合同条款和行业习惯、惯例或做法以及运输情形,能够合理预期的交货时间和地点接受交货。
Article 44  Obligation to acknowledge receipt
On request of the carrier or the performing party that delivers the goods, the consignee shall acknowledge receipt of the goods from the carrier or the performing party in the manner that is customary at the place of delivery. The carrier may refuse delivery if the consignee refuses to acknowledge such receipt.
第四十四条
确认收到的义务
    收货人应按照交付货物的承运人或履约方的要求,以交货地的习惯方式确认从承运人或履约方收到了货物。收货人拒绝确认收到货物的,承运人可以拒绝交付。
Article 45  Delivery when no negotiable transport document or negotiable electronic transport record is issued
When neither a negotiable transport document nor a negotiable electronic transport record has been issued:
(a) The carrier shall deliver the goods to the consignee at the time and location referred to in article 43. The carrier may refuse delivery if the person claiming to be the consignee does not properly identify itself as the consignee on the request of the carrier;
(b) If the name and address of the consignee are not referred to in the contract particulars, the controlling party shall prior to or upon the arrival of the goods at the place of destination advise the carrier of such name and address;
(c) Without prejudice to article 48, paragraph 1, if the goods are not deliverable because (i) the consignee, after having received a notice of arrival, does not, at the time or within the time period referred to in article 43, claim delivery of the goods from the carrier after their arrival at the place of destination, (ii) the carrier refuses delivery because the person claiming to be the consignee does not properly identify itself as the consignee, or (iii) the carrier is, after reasonable effort, unable to locate the consignee in order to request delivery instructions, the carrier may so advise the controlling party and request instructions in respect of the delivery of the goods. If, after reasonable effort, the carrier is unable to locate the controlling party, the carrier may so advise the shipper and request instructions in respect of the delivery of the goods. If, after reasonable effort, the carrier is unable to locate the shipper, the carrier may so advise the documentary shipper and request instructions in respect of the delivery of the goods;
(d) The carrier that delivers the goods upon instruction of the controlling party, the shipper or the documentary shipper pursuant to subparagraph (c) of this article is discharged from its obligations to deliver the goods under the contract of carriage.
    第四十五条
    未签发可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录时的交付
    未签发可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录的:
    (一)承运人应在第四十三条述及的时间和地点将货物交付给收货人。声称是收货人的人未按照承运人的要求适当表明其为收货人的,承运人可以拒绝交付;
    (二)收货人的名称和地址未在合同事项中载明的,控制方应在货物到达目的地前或在货物到达目的地时,将收货人的名称和地址告知承运人;
    (三)在不影响第四十八条第一款的情况下,如果货物未能交付是因为1。收货人接到了到货通知而未在第四十三条述及的时间或期限内在货物到达目的地后向承运人主张提取货物,2.承运人因声称是收货人的人未适当表明其为收货人而拒绝交货,或3.承运人经合理努力无法确定收货人,请求就货物的交付发出指示,则承运人可以通知控制方,请求就货物的交付发出指示。承运人经合理努力无法确定控制方的,承运人可以通知托运人,请求就货物的交付发出指示。承运人经合理努力无法确定控制方或托运人的,承运人可以通知单证托运人,请求就货物的交付发出指示;
    (四) 承运人根据本条第三项按照控制方、托运人或单证托运人的指示交付货物的,解除承运人在运输合同下交付货物的义务。
Article 46  Delivery when a non-negotiable transport document that requires surrender is issued
When a non-negotiable transport document has been issued that indicates that it shall be surrendered in order to obtain delivery of the goods:
(a) The carrier shall deliver the goods at the time and location referred to in article 43 to the consignee upon the consignee properly identifying itself on the request of the carrier and surrender of the non-negotiable document. The carrier may refuse delivery if the person claiming to be the consignee fails to properly identify itself on the request of the carrier, and shall refuse delivery if the non negotiable document is not surrendered. If more than one original of the non negotiable document has been issued, the surrender of one original will suffice and the other originals cease to have any effect or validity;
(b) Without prejudice to article 48, paragraph 1, if the goods are not deliverable because (i) the consignee, after having received a notice of arrival, does not, at the time or within the time period referred to in article 43, claim delivery of the goods from the carrier after their arrival at the place of destination, (ii) the carrier refuses delivery because the person claiming to be the consignee does not properly identify itself as the consignee or does not surrender the document, or (iii) the carrier is, after reasonable effort, unable to locate the consignee in order to request delivery instructions, the carrier may so advise the shipper and request instructions in respect of the delivery of the goods. If, after reasonable effort, the carrier is unable to locate the shipper, the carrier may so advise the documentary shipper and request instructions in respect of the delivery of the goods;
(c) The carrier that delivers the goods upon instruction of the shipper or the documentary shipper pursuant to subparagraph (b) of, this article is discharged from its obligation to deliver the goods under the contract of carriage, irrespective of whether the non-negotiable transport document has been surrendered to it.
    第四十六条
    签发必须提交的不可转让运输单证时的交付
    签发不可转让运输单证,其中载明必须交单提货的:
    (一) 承运人应在收货人按照承运人的要求适当表明其为收货人并提交不可转让单证时,在第四十三条述及的时间和地点将货物交付给收货人。声称是收货人的人不能按照承运人的要求适当表明其为收货人的,承运人可以拒绝交付,未提交不可转让单证的,承运人应拒绝交付。所签发不可转让单证有一份以上正本的,提交一份正本单证即可,其余正本单证随即失去效力;
    (二) 在不影响第四十八条第一款的情况下,如果货物未能交付是因为1.收货人接到了到货通知而未在第四十三条述及的时间或期限内在货物到达目的地后向承运人主张提取货物,2.承运人因声称是收货人的人未适当表明其为收货人或未提交单证而拒绝交货,或3.承运人经合理努力无法确定收货人,请求就货物的交付发出指示,则承运人可以通知托运人,请求就货物的交付发出指示。承运人经合理努力无法确定托运人的,承运人应通知单证托运人,请求就货物的交付发出指示;
    (三) 承运人根据本条第二项按照托运人或单证托运人的指示交付货物的,解除承运人在运输合同下交付货物的义务,而不考虑是否已向承运人提交不可转让运输单证。
Article 47  Delivery when a negotiable transport document or negotiable electronic transport record is issued
1. When a negotiable transport document or a negotiable electronic transport record has been issued:
(a) The holder of the negotiable transport document or negotiable electronic transport record is entitled to claim delivery of the goods from the carrier after they have arrived at the place of destination, in which event the carrier shall deliver the goods at the time and location referred to in article 43 to the holder:
(i) Upon surrender of the negotiable transport document and, if the holder is one of the persons referred to in article 1, subparagraph 10 (a) (i), upon the holder properly identifying itself; or
(ii) Upon demonstration by the holder, in accordance with the procedures referred to in article 9, paragraph 1, that it is the holder of the negotiable electronic transport record;
(b) The carrier shall refuse delivery if the requirements of subparagraph (a) (i) or (a) (ii) of this paragraph are not met;
(c) If more than one original of the negotiable transport document has been issued, and the number of originals is stated in that document, the surrender of one original will suffice and the other originals cease to have any effect or validity. When a negotiable electronic transport record has been used, such electronic transport record ceases to have any effect or validity upon delivery to the holder in accordance with the procedures required by article 9, paragraph 1.
2. Without prejudice to article 48, paragraph 1, if the negotiable transport document or the negotiable electronic transport record expressly states that the goods may be delivered without the surrender of the transport document or the electronic transport record, the following rules apply:
(a) If the goods are not deliverable because (i) the holder, after having received a notice of arrival, does not, at the time or within the time period referred to in article 43, claim delivery of the goods from the carrier after their arrival at the place of destination, (ii) the carrier refuses delivery because the person claiming to be a holder does not properly identify itself as one of the persons referred to in article 1, subparagraph 10 (a) (i), or (iii) the carrier is, after reasonable effort, unable to locate the holder in order to request delivery instructions, the carrier may so advise the shipper and request instructions in respect of the delivery of the goods. If, after reasonable effort, the carrier is unable to locate the shipper, the carrier may so advise the documentary shipper and request instructions in respect of the delivery of the goods;
(b) The carrier that delivers the goods upon instruction of the shipper or the documentary shipper in accordance with subparagraph 2 (a) of this article is discharged from its obligation to deliver the goods under the contract of carriage to the holder, irrespective of whether the negotiable transport document has been surrendered to it, or the person claiming delivery under a negotiable electronic transport record has demonstrated, in accordance with the procedures referred to in article 9, paragraph 1, that it is the holder;
(c) The person giving instructions under subparagraph 2 (a) of this article shall indemnify the carrier against loss arising from its being held liable to the holder under subparagraph 2 (e) of this article. The carrier may refuse to follow those instructions if the person fails to provide adequate security as the carrier may reasonably request;
(d) A person that becomes a holder of the negotiable transport document or the negotiable electronic transport record after the carrier has delivered the goods pursuant to subparagraph 2 (b) of this article, but pursuant to contractual or other arrangements made before such delivery acquires rights against the carrier under the contract of carriage, other than the right to claim delivery of the goods;
(e) Notwithstanding subparagraphs 2 (b) and 2 (d) of this article, a holder that becomes a holder after such delivery, and that did not have and could not reasonably have had knowledge of such delivery at the time it became a holder, acquires the rights incorporated in the negotiable transport document or negotiable electronic transport record. When the contract particulars state the expected time of arrival of the goods, or indicate how to obtain information as to whether the goods have been delivered, it is presumed that the holder at the time that it became a holder had or could reasonably have had knowledge of the delivery of the goods.
    第四十七条
    签发可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录时的交付
    一、签发可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录的:
    (一) 可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录的持有人有权在货物到达目的地后向承运人主张提取货物,在这种情况下,下列要求之一得到满足时,承运人即应在第四十三条述及的时间和地点将货物交付给该持有人:
    1.  该持有人提交了可转让运输单证,该持有人为第一条第十款第一项第1目述及的人的,还适当表明了其身份;或
    2.  该持有人按照第九条第一款述及的程序证明其为可转让电子运输记录的持有人。
    (二) 本款第一项第1目或第三项第2目所列要求未得到满足的,承运人应拒绝交付;
    (三) 所签发可转让运输单证有一份以上正本,且该单证中注明正本份数的,提交一份正本单证即可,其余正本单证随即失去效力。使用可转让电子运输记录的,按照第九条第一款规定的程序一经向持有人交付货物,该电子运输记录随即失去效力。
    二、在不影响第四十八条第一款的情况下,可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录明确规定可以不提交运输单证或电子运输记录交付货物的,适用下列规则:
    (一) 如果货物未能交付是因为1.持有人接到了到货通知而未在第四十三条述及的时间或期限内在货物到达目的地后向承运人主张提取货物,2.承运人因声称是持有人的人未适当表明其为第一条第十款第一项第1目所述及的人之一而拒绝交货,或3.承运人经合理努力无法确定持有人,请求就货物的交付发出指示,则承运人可以通知托运人,请求就货物的交付发出指示。承运人经合理努力无法确定托运人的,承运人应通知单证托运人,请求就货物的交付发出指示;
    (二) 承运人根据本条第二款第一项按照托运人或单证托运人的指示交付货物的,解除承运人在运输合同下向持有人交付货物的义务,而不考虑是否已向承运人提交可转让运输单证,也不考虑凭可转让电子运输记录主张提货的人是否已按照第九条第一款述及的程序证明其为持有人;
    (三) 承运人根据本条第二款第五项对持有人负赔偿责任的,根据本条第二款第一项发出指示的人应补偿承运人由此遭受的损失。该人未能按照承运人的合理要求提供适当担保的,承运人可以拒绝遵守这些指示;
    (四) 一人在承运人已根据本条第二款第二项交付货物后成为可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录的持有人,仍根据此项交货前的合同安排或其他安排取得对承运人除主张提货权以外的运输合同下的权利;
    (五) 虽有本条第二款第二项和第二款第四项的规定,一持有人在此项交货后成为持有人,在其成为持有人时不知道且理应不可能知道此项交货的,取得可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录所包含的权利。合同事项载明预计到货时间,或载明如何获取有关货物是否已交付的信息的,推定该持有人在其成为持有人时已知道或理应能够知道货物的交付。
Article 48  Goods remaining undelivered
1. For the purposes of this article, goods shall be deemed to have remained undelivered only if, after their arrival at the place of destination:
(a) The consignee does not accept delivery of the goods pursuant to this chapter at the time and location referred to in article 43;
(b) The controlling party, the holder, the shipper or the documentary shipper cannot be found or does not give the carrier adequate instructions pursuant to articles 45, 46 and 47;
(c) The carrier is entitled or required to refuse delivery pursuant to articles 44, 45, 46 and 47;
(d) The carrier is not allowed to deliver the goods to the consignee pursuant to the law or regulations of the place at which delivery is requested; or
(e) The goods are otherwise undeliverable by the carrier.
2. Without prejudice to any other rights that the carrier may have against the shipper, controlling party or consignee, if the goods have remained undelivered, the carrier may, at the risk and expense of the person entitled to the goods, take such action in respect of the goods as circumstances may reasonably require, including:
(a) To store the goods at any suitable place;
(b) To unpack the goods if they are packed in containers or vehicles, or to act otherwise in respect of the goods, including by moving them; and
(c) To cause the goods to be sold or destroyed in accordance with the practices or pursuant to the law or regulations of the place where the goods are located at the time.
3. The carrier may exercise the rights under paragraph 2 of this article only after it has given reasonable notice of the intended action under paragraph 2 of this article to the person stated in the contract particulars as the person, if any, to be notified of the arrival of the goods at the place of destination, and to one of the following persons in the order indicated, if known to the carrier: the consignee, the controlling party or the shipper.
4. If the goods are sold pursuant to subparagraph 2 (c) of this article, the carrier shall hold the proceeds of the sale for the benefit of the person entitled to the goods, subject to the deduction of any costs incurred by the carrier and any other amounts that are due to the carrier in connection with the carriage of those goods.
5. The carrier shall not be liable for loss of or damage to goods that occurs during the time that they remain undelivered pursuant to this article unless the claimant proves that such loss or damage resulted from the failure by the carrier to take steps that would have been reasonable in the circumstances to preserve the goods and that the carrier knew or ought to have known that the loss or damage to the goods would result from its failure to take such steps.
    第四十八条
    货物仍未交付
    一、在本条中,只有在下列情形下,货物到达目的地后应被视为仍未交付:
    (一) 收货人未根据本章的规定,在第四十三条述及的时间和地点接受交货;
    (二) 控制方、持有人、托运人或单证托运人无法被找到,或未根据第四十五条、第四十六条和第四十七条向承运人发出适当指示;
    (三) 根据第四十四条、第四十五条、第四十六条和第四十七条,承运人有权或必须拒绝交付货物;
    (四) 根据请求交货地的法律条例,不允许承运人向收货人交付货物;或
    (五) 承运人无法交付货物的其他情形。
    二、在不影响承运人可以向托运人、控制方或收货人主张其他任何权利的情况下,货物仍未交付的,由有权提取货物的人承担风险和费用,承运人可以根据情况的合理要求就货物采取行动,其中包括:
    (一) 将货物存放在任何合适地方;
    (二) 货物载于集装箱内或车辆内的,打开包装,或就货物采取其他行动,包括转移货物;并且
    (三) 按照惯例,或根据货物当时所在地的法律条例,将货物出售或销毁。
    三、只有在承运人已就本条第二款所设想的行动,向合同事项中载明的货物到达目的地时可能存在的任何被通知人,并向承运人知道的收货人、控制方或托运人这三种人之一,按照所列顺序发出合理通知之后,承运人方可行使本条第二款规定的权利。
    四、货物根据本条第二款第三项出售的,承运人应为有权提取货物的人的利益代为保管出售货物的价款,但可从中扣除承运人承担的任何费用和应付给承运人的与运输这些货物有关的其他任何款项。
    五、对于在本条所规定的货物仍未交付期间内发生的货物灭失或损坏,承运人不负赔偿责任,除非索赔人证明,此种灭失或损坏是由于承运人未能在当时的情况下采取应有的合理步骤保存货物所致,且承运人已知道或本应知道不采取此种步骤将给货物造成的灭失或损坏。
Article 49  Retention of goods
Nothing in this Convention affects a right of the carrier or a performing party that may exist pursuant to the contract of carriage or the applicable law to retain the goods to secure the payment of sums due.
    第四十九条
    货物留置
    本公约的规定概不影响承运人或履约方可以根据运输合同或准据法留置货物,为应付款的偿付获得担保的权利。
Chapter 10  Rights of the controlling party
    第十章
    控制方的权利
Article 50  Exercise and extent of right of control
1. The right of control may be exercised only by the controlling party and is limited to:
(a) The right to give or modify instructions in respect of the goods that do not constitute a variation of the contract of carriage;
(b) The right to obtain delivery of the goods at a scheduled port of call or, in respect of inland carriage, any place en route; and
(c) The right to replace the consignee by any other person including the controlling party.
2. The right of control exists during the entire period of responsibility of the carrier, as provided in article 12, and ceases when that period expires.
    第五十条
    控制权的行使和范围
    一、控制权只能由控制方行使,且仅限于:
    (一) 就货物发出指示或修改指示的权利,此种指示不构成对运输合同的变更;
    (二) 在计划挂靠港,或在内陆运输情况下在运输途中的任何地点提取货物的权利;和
    (三) 由包括控制方在内的其他任何人取代收货人的权利。
    二、控制权存在于第十二条规定的整个承运人责任期间,该责任期届满时即告终止。
Article 51  Identity of the controlling party and transfer of the right of control
1. Except in the cases referred to in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of this article:
(a) The shipper is the controlling party unless the shipper, when the contract of carriage is concluded, designates the consignee, the documentary shipper or another person as the controlling party;
(b) The controlling party is entitled to transfer the right of control to another person. The transfer becomes effective with respect to the carrier upon its notification of the transfer by the transferor, and the transferee becomes the controlling party; and
(c) The controlling party shall properly identify itself when it exercises the right of control.
2. When a non-negotiable transport document has been issued that indicates that it shall be surrendered in order to obtain delivery of the goods:
(a) The shipper is the controlling party and may transfer the right of control to the consignee named in the transport document by transferring the document to that person without endorsement. If more than one original of the document was issued, all originals shall be transferred in order to effect a transfer of the right of control; and
(b) In order to exercise its right of control, the controlling party shall produce the document and properly identify itself. If more than one original of the document was issued, all originals shall be produced, failing which the right of control cannot be exercised.
3. When a negotiable transport document is issued:
(a) The holder or, if more than one original of the negotiable transport document is issued, the holder of all originals is the controlling party;
(b) The holder may transfer the right of control by transferring the negotiable transport document to another person in accordance with article 57. If more than one original of that document was issued, all originals shall be transferred to that person in order to effect a transfer of the right of control; and
(c) In order to exercise the right of control, the holder shall produce the negotiable transport document to the carrier, and if the holder is one of the persons referred to in article 1, subparagraph 10 (a) (i), the holder shall properly identify itself. If more than one original of the document was issued, all originals shall be produced, failing which the right of control cannot be exercised.
4. When a negotiable electronic transport record is issued:
(a) The holder is the controlling party;
(b) The holder may transfer the right of control to another person by transferring the negotiable electronic transport record in accordance with the procedures referred to in article 9, paragraph 1; and
(c) In order to exercise the right of control, the holder shall demonstrate, in accordance with the procedures referred to in article 9, paragraph 1, that it is the holder.
    第五十一条
    控制方的识别和控制权的转让
    一、除本条第二款、第三款和第四款述及的情形外,
    (一) 托运人为控制方,除非托运人在订立运输合同时指定收货人、单证托运人或其他人为控制方;
    (二) 控制方有权将控制权转让给其他人。此种转让在转让人向承运人发出转让通知时对承运人产生效力,受让人于是成为控制方;并且
    (三) 控制方行使控制权时,应适当表明其身份。
    二、 已签发不可转让运输单证,其中载明必须交单提货的:
    (一) 托运人为控制方,且可以将控制权转让给运输单证中指定的收货人,该运输单证可不经背书转让给该人。所签发单证有一份以上正本的,应转让所有正本单证,方可实现控制权的转让;并且
    (二) 为了行使控制权,控制方应提交单证且适当表明其身份。所签发单证有一份以上正本的,应提交所有正本单证,否则不能行使控制权。
    三、签发可转让运输单证的:
    (一) 持有人为控制方,所签发可转让运输单证有一份以上正本的,持有人得到所有正本单证,方可成为控制方;
    (二) 持有人可以根据第五十七条,通过将可转让运输单证转让给其他人而转让控制权。所签发单证有一份以上正本的,应向该人转让所有正本单证,方可实现控制权的转让;并且
    (三) 为了行使控制权,持有人应向承运人提交可转让运输单证,持有人是第一条第十款第一项第1目述及的其中一种人的,应适当表明其身份。所签发单证有一份以上正本的,应提交所有正本单证,否则不能行使控制权。
    四、签发可转让电子运输记录的:
    (一) 持有人为控制方;
    (二) 持有人可以按照第九条第一款述及的程序,通过转让可转让电子运输记录,将控制权转让给其他人;并且
    (三) 为了行使控制权,持有人应按照第九条第一款述及的程序证明其为持有人。
Article 52  Carrier's execution of instructions
1. Subject to paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article, the carrier shall execute the instructions referred to in article 50 if:
(a) The person giving such instructions is entitled to exercise the right of control;
(b) The instructions can reasonably be executed according to their terms at the moment that they reach the carrier; and
(c) The instructions will not interfere with the normal operations of the carrier, including its delivery practices.
2. In any event, the controlling party shall reimburse the carrier for any reasonable additional expense that the carrier may incur and shall indemnify the carrier against loss or damage that the carrier may suffer as a result of diligently executing any instruction pursuant to this article, including compensation that the carrier may become liable to pay for loss of or damage to other goods being carried.
3. The carrier is entitled to obtain security from the controlling party for the amount of additional expense, loss or damage that the carrier reasonably expects will arise in connection with the execution of an instruction pursuant to this article. The carrier may refuse to carry out the instructions if no such security is provided.
4. The carrier's liability for loss of or damage to the goods or for delay in delivery resulting from its failure to comply with the instructions of the controlling party in breach of its obligation pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article shall be subject to articles 17 to 23, and the amount of the compensation payable by the carrier shall be subject to articles 59 to 61.
    第五十二条
    承运人执行指示
    一、除须遵循本条第二款和第三款的规定外,在下列条件下,承运人应执行第五十条述及的指示:
    (一) 发出此种指示的人有权行使控制权;
    (二) 该指示送达承运人时即能按照其中的条件合理地执行;并且
    (三) 该指示不会干扰承运人的正常营运,包括其交付作业。
    二、在任何情况下,控制方均应偿还承运人根据本条勤勉执行任何指示而可能承担的合理的额外费用,且应补偿承运人可能由于此种执行而遭受的灭失或损坏,包括为承运人可能赔付其他所载运货物的灭失或损坏而作出赔偿。
    三、按照承运人的合理预计,根据本条执行指示将产生额外费用、灭失或损坏的,承运人有权从控制方处获得与之数额相当的担保。未提供此种担保的,承运人可以拒绝执行指示。
    四、承运人违反本条第一款对其规定的义务,未遵守控制方指示而造成货物灭失、损坏或迟延交付的,承运人所负的赔偿责任应根据第,十七条至第二十三条确定,承运人应付的赔偿额应根据第五十九条至第六十一条确定。
Article 53  Deemed delivery
Goods that are delivered pursuant to an instruction in accordance with article 52, paragraph 1, are deemed to be delivered at the place of destination, and the provisions of chapter 9 relating to such delivery apply to such goods.
    第五十三条
    视为交货
    根据第五十二条第一款按照指示交付货物,视为在目的地交货,第九章中有关此种交货的规定适用于此种货物。
Article 54  Variations to the contract of carriage
1. The controlling party is the only person that may agree with the carrier to variations to the contract of carriage other than those referred to in article 50, subparagraphs 1 (b) and (c).
2. Variations to the contract of carriage, including those referred to in article 50, subparagraphs 1 (b) and (c), shall be stated in a negotiable transport document or in a non-negotiable transport document that requires surrender, or incorporated in a negotiable electronic transport record, or, upon the request of the controlling party, shall be stated in a non-negotiable transport document or incorporated in a non-negotiable electronic transport record. If so stated or incorporated, such variations shall be signed in accordance with article 38.
    第五十四条
    运输合同的变更
    一、控制方是唯一可以与承运人约定对运输合同的变更的人,但第五十条第一款第二项和第三项述及的内容除外。
    二、对运输合同的变更,包括第五十条第一款第二项和第三项述及的内容,应在可转让运输单证或必须提交的不可转让运输单证上记载或并入可转让电子运输记录,或在控制方提出要求时,应在不可转让运输单证上记载或并入不可转让电子运输记录。凡作此种记载或并入的变更,均应根据第三十八条签名。
Article 55  Providing additional information, instructions or documents to carrier
1. The controlling party, on request of the carrier or a performing party, shall provide in a timely manner information, instructions or documents relating to the goods not yet provided by the shipper and not otherwise reasonably available to the carrier that the carrier may reasonably need to perform its obligations under the contract of carriage.
2. If the carrier, after reasonable effort, is unable to locate the controlling party or the controlling party is unable to provide adequate information, instructions or documents to the carrier, the shipper shall provide them. If the carrier, after reasonable effort, is unable to locate the shipper, the documentary shipper shall provide such information, instructions or documents.
    第五十五条
    向承运人提供补充信息、指示或文件
    一、控制方应按照承运人或履约方的要求,及时提供承运人履行其在运输合同下义务而可能合理需要的有关货物的信息、指示或文件,此种信息、指示或文件尚未由托运人提供,且承运人无法以其他方式合理获得。
    二、承运人经合理努力无法确定控制方,或控制方无法向承运人提供适当信息、指示或文件的,应由托运人提供此种信息、指示或文件。承运人经合理努力无法确定托运人的,应由单证托运人提供此种信息、指示或文件。
Article 56  Variation by agreement
The parties to the contract of carriage may vary the effect of articles 50, subparagraphs 1 (b) and (c), 50, paragraph 2, and 52. The parties may also restrict or exclude the transferability of the right of control referred to in article 51, subparagraph 1 (b).
    第五十六条
    协议变更
    运输合同当事人可以协议变更第五十条第一款第二项和第三项、第五十条第二款和第五十二条的效力。当事人还可以限制或排除第五十一条第一款第二项所述及的控制权的可转让性。
Chapter 11  Transfer of rights
    第十一章
    权利转让
Article 57  When a negotiable transport document or negotiable electronic transport record is issued
1. When a negotiable transport document is issued, the holder may transfer the rights incorporated in the document by transferring it to another person:
(a) Duly endorsed either to such other person or in blank, if an order document; or
(b) Without endorsement, if: (i) a bearer document or a blank endorsed document; or (ii) a document made out to the order of a named person and the transfer is between the first holder and the named person.
2. When a negotiable electronic transport record is issued, its holder may transfer the rights incorporated in it, whether it be made out to order or to the order of a named person, by transferring the electronic transport record in accordance with the procedures referred to in article 9, paragraph 1.
    第五十七条
    签发可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录
    一、签发可转让运输单证的,其持有人可以通过向其他人转让该运输单证而转让其中包含的各项权利:
    (一) 是指示单证的,须妥善背书给该其他人,或须空白背书;或
    (二) 是1.不记名单证或空白背书单证的,或是2. 凭记名人指示开出的单证,且转让发生在第一持有人与该记名人之间的,无须背书。
    二、签发可转让电子运输记录的,不论该电子运输记录是凭指示开出还是凭记名人指示开出,其持有人均可以按照第九条第一款述及的程序,通过转让该电子运输记录,转让其中包含的各项权利。
Article 58  Liability of holder
1. Without prejudice to article 55, a holder that is not the shipper and that does not exercise any right under the contract of carriage does not assume any liability under the contract of carriage solely by reason of being a holder.
2. A holder that is not the shipper and that exercises any right under the contract of carriage assumes any liabilities imposed on it under the contract of carriage to the extent that such liabilities are incorporated in or ascertainable from the negotiable transport document or the negotiable electronic transport record.
3. For the purposes of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, a holder that is not the shipper does not exercise any right under the contract of carriage solely because:
(a) It agrees with the carrier, pursuant to article 10, to replace a negotiable transport document by a negotiable electronic transport record or to replace a negotiable electronic transport record by a negotiable transport document; or
(b) It transfers its rights pursuant to article 57.
    第五十八条
    持有人的赔偿责任
    一、在不影响第五十五条的情况下,非托运人的持有人,未行使运输合同下任何权利的,不能只因为是持有人而负有运输合同下的任何赔偿责任。
    二、非托运人的持有人,行使运输合同下任何权利的,负有运输合同对其规定的任何赔偿责任,但此种赔偿责任须载入可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录,或可以从其中查明。
    三、就本条第一款和第二款而言,非托运人的持有人不能只因为下列作为而被视为行使运输合同下的任何权利:
    (一) 该持有人根据第十条与承运人约定,以可转让电子运输记录替换可转让运输单证,或以可转让运输单证替换可转让电子运输记录;或
    (二) 该持有人根据第五十七条转让其权利。
Chapter 12  Limits of liability
    第十二章
    赔偿责任限额
Article 59  Limits of liability
1. Subject to articles 60 and 61, paragraph 1, the carrier's liability for breaches of its obligations under this Convention is limited to 875 units of account per package or other shipping unit, or 3 units of account per kilogram of the gross weight of the goods that are the subject of the claim or dispute, whichever amount is the higher, except when the value of the goods has been declared by the shipper and included in the contract particulars, or when a higher amount than the amount of limitation of liability set out in this article has been agreed upon between the carrier and the shipper.
2. When goods are carried in or on a container, pallet or similar article of transport used to consolidate goods, or in or on a vehicle, the packages or shipping units enumerated in the contract particulars as packed in or on such article of transport or vehicle are deemed packages or shipping units. If not so enumerated, the goods in or on such article of transport or vehicle are deemed one shipping unit.
3. The unit of account referred to in this article is the Special Drawing Right as defined by the International Monetary Fund. The amounts referred to in this article are to be converted into the national currency of a State according to the value of such currency at the date of judgement or award or the date agreed upon by the parties. The value of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a Contracting State that is a member of the International Monetary Fund is to be calculated in accordance with the method of valuation applied by the International Monetary Fund in effect at the date in question for its operations and transactions. The value of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a Contracting State that is not a member of the International Monetary Fund is to be calculated in a manner to be determined by that State.
    第五十九条
    赔偿责任限额
    一、除须遵循第六十条以及第六十一条第一款的规定外,承运人对于违反本公约对其规定的义务所负赔偿责任的限额,按照索赔或争议所涉货物的件数或其他货运单位计算,每件或每个其他货运单位875个计算单位,或按照索赔或争议所涉货物的毛重计算,每公斤3个计算单位,以两者中较高限额为准,但货物价值已由托运人申报且在合同事项中载明的,或承运人与托运人已另行约定高于本条所规定的赔偿责任限额的,不在此列。
    二、货物载于集装箱、货盘或拼装货物的类似装运器具内,或载于车辆内运输的,合同事项中载列的载于此种装运器具内或车辆内的货物件数或货运单位数,视为货物件数或货运单位数。未载列的,载于此种装运器具内或车辆内的货物视为一个货运单位。
    三、本条述及的计算单位,是国际货币基金组织定义的特别提款权。本条述及的限额,须按照一国国家货币在判决日或裁决日,或在当事人约定日的币值折算成该国货币。一缔约国是国际货币基金组织成员国的,该国货币对特别提款权的比价,须按照国际货币基金组织当日对其业务和交易实行的计价换算方法计算。一缔约国不是国际货币基金组织成员国的,该国货币对特别提款权的比价,须按照该国确定的方式计算。
Article 60  Limits of liability for loss caused by delay
Subject to article 61, paragraph 2, compensation for loss of or damage to the goods due to delay shall be calculated in accordance with article 22 and liability for economic loss due to delay is limited to an amount equivalent to two and one-half times the freight payable on the goods delayed. The total amount payable pursuant to this article and article 59, paragraph 1, may not exceed the limit that would be established pursuant to article 59, paragraph 1, in respect of the total loss of the goods concerned.
    第六十条
    迟延造成损失的赔偿责任限额
    除须遵循第六十一条第二款的规定外,对迟延造成货物灭失或损坏的赔偿额,应按照第二十二条计算,对迟延造成经济损失的赔偿责任限额,是相当于迟交货物应付运费两倍半的数额。根据本条以及第五十九条第一款确定的赔付总额,不得超过所涉货物全损时根据第五十九条第一款确定的限额。
Article 61  Loss of the benefit of limitation of liability
1. Neither the carrier nor any of the persons referred to in article 18 is entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability as provided in article 59, or as provided in the contract of carriage, if the claimant proves that the loss resulting from the breach of the carrier's obligation under this Convention was attributable to a personal act or omission of the person claiming a right to limit done with the intent to cause such loss or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss would probably result.
2. Neither the carrier nor any of the persons mentioned in article 18 is entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability as provided in article 60 if the claimant proves that the delay in delivery resulted from a personal act or omission of the person claiming a right to limit done with the intent to cause the loss due to delay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss would probably result.
    第六十一条
    赔偿责任限制权的丧失
    一、如果索赔人证明,违反本公约规定的承运人义务所造成的损失,是由于声称有权限制赔偿责任的人本人故意造成此种损失的作为或不作为所导致的,或是明知可能产生此种损失而轻率地作为或不作为所导致的,则承运人或第十八条述及的任何人,无权根据第五十九条的规定或按照运输合同的约定享有限制赔偿责任的利益。
    二、如果索赔人证明,迟延交付是由于声称有权限制赔偿责任的人本人故意造成迟延损失的作为或不作为所导致的,或是明知可能产生此种损失而轻率地作为或不作为所导致的,则承运人或第十八条述及的任何人,无权根据第六十条的规定享有限制赔偿责任的利益。
Chapter 13  Time for suit
    第十三章
    时效
Article 62  Period of time for suit
1. No judicial or arbitral proceedings in respect of claims or disputes arising from a breach of an obligation under this Convention may be instituted after the expiration of a period of two years.
2. The period referred to in paragraph 1 of this article commences on the day on which the carrier has delivered the goods or, in cases in which no goods have been delivered or only part of the goods have been delivered, on the last day on which the goods should have been delivered. The day on which the period commences is not included in the period.
3. Notwithstanding the expiration of the period set out in paragraph 1 of this article, one party may rely on its claim as a defence or for the purpose of set-off against a claim asserted by the other party.
    第六十二条
    时效期
    一、两年时效期满后,不得就违反本公约下的一项义务所产生的索赔或争议提起司法程序或仲裁程序。
    二、本条第一款述及的时效期,自承运人交付货物之日起算,未交付货物或只交付了部分货物的,自本应交付货物最后之日起算。时效期间的起算日不包括在该期间内。
    三、即使本条第一款规定的时效期满,一方当事人仍然可以提出索赔作为抗辩,或以此抵消对方当事人提出的索赔。
Article 63  Extension of time for suit
The period provided in article 62 shall not be subject to suspension or interruption, but the person against which a claim is made may at any time during the running of the period extend that period by a declaration to the claimant. This period may be further extended by another declaration or declarations.
    第六十三条
    时效的延长
    第六十二条  规定的时效期不得中止或中断,但被索赔人可以在时效期内的任何时间,通过向索赔人声明而延长该时效期。该时效期可以经再次声明或多次声明进一步延长。
Article 64  Action for indemnity
An action for indemnity by a person held liable may be instituted after the expiration of the period provided in article 62 if the indemnity action is instituted within the later of:
(a) The time allowed by the applicable law in the jurisdiction where proceedings are instituted; or
(b) Ninety days commencing from the day when the person instituting the action for indemnity has either settled the claim or been served with process in the action against itself, whichever is earlier.
    第六十四条
    追偿诉讼
    被认定负有责任的人,可以在第六十二条规定的时效期满后提起追偿诉讼,提起该追偿诉讼的时效期以下列较晚者为准:
    (一) 提起程序的管辖地准据法所允许的时效期内;或
    (二) 自追偿诉讼提起人解决原索赔之日起,或自收到向其本人送达的起诉文书之日(以较早者为准)起九十日内。
Article 65  Actions against the person identified as the carrier
An action against the bareboat charterer or the person identified as the carrier pursuant to article 37, paragraph 2, may be instituted after the expiration of the period provided in article 62 if the action is instituted within the later of:
(a) The time allowed by the applicable law in the jurisdiction where proceedings are instituted; or
(b) Ninety days commencing from the day when the carrier has been identified, or the registered owner or bareboat charterer has rebutted the presumption that it is the carrier, pursuant to article 37, paragraph 2.
    第六十五条
    对被识别为承运人的人的诉讼
    对光船承租人或对根据第三十七条第二款被识别为承运人的人的诉讼,可以在第六十二条规定的时效期满后提起,提起该诉讼的时效期以下列较晚者为准:
    (一) 提起程序的管辖地准据法所允许的时效期内;或
    (二) 自识别承运人之日起,或自船舶登记所有人或光船承租人根据第三十七条第二款推翻其为承运人的推定之日起九十日内。
Chapter 14  Jurisdiction
    第十四章
    管辖权
Article 66  Actions against the carrier
Unless the contract of carriage contains an exclusive choice of court agreement that complies with article 67 or 72, the plaintiff has the right to institute judicial proceedings under this Convention against the carrier:
(a) In a competent court within the jurisdiction of which is situated one of the following places:
(i) The domicile of the carrier;
(ii) The place of receipt agreed in the contract of carriage;
(iii) The place of delivery agreed in the contract of carriage; or
(iv) The port where the goods are initially loaded on a ship or the port where the goods are finally discharged from a ship; or
(b) In a competent court or courts designated by an agreement between the shipper and the carrier for the purpose of deciding claims against the carrier that may arise under this Convention.
    第六十六条
    对承运人的诉讼
    除非运输合同载有一项符合第六十七条或第七十二条的排他性法院选择协议,否则原告有权根据本公约在下列管辖法院之一对承运人提起司法程序:
    (一) 对下列地点之一拥有管辖权的一管辖法院:
    1. 承运人的住所;
    2. 运输合同约定的收货地;
    3. 运输合同约定的交货地;或
    4. 货物的最初装船港或货物的最终卸船港;或
    (二) 为裁定本公约下可能产生的向承运人索赔事项,托运人与承运人在协议中指定的一个或数个管辖法院。
Article 67  Choice of court agreements
1. The jurisdiction of a court chosen in accordance with article 66, subparagraph (b), is exclusive for disputes between the parties to the contract only if the parties so agree and the agreement conferring jurisdiction:
(a) Is contained in a volume contract that clearly states the names and addresses of the parties and either (i) is individually negotiated or (ii) contains a prominent statement that there is an exclusive choice of court agreement and specifies the sections of the volume contract containing that agreement; and
(b) Clearly designates the courts of one Contracting State or one or more specific courts of one Contracting State.
2. A person that is not a party to the volume contract is bound by an exclusive choice of court agreement concluded in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article only if:
(a) The court is in one of the places designated in article 66, subparagraph (a);
(b) That agreement is contained in the transport document or electronic transport record;
(c) That person is given timely and adequate notice of the court where the action shall be brought and that the jurisdiction of that court is exclusive; and
(d) The law of the court seized recognizes that that person may be bound by the exclusive choice of court agreement.
    第六十七条
    法院选择协议
    一、根据第六十六条第二项选择的法院,只有经合同当事人协议约定,且只有授予管辖权协议满足下列各项条件,方能对合同当事人之间的争议具有排他性管辖权:
    (一) 该协议载于清楚载明各方当事人名称和地址的批量合同,此种批量合同或1.是单独协商订立,或2.载有一则存在一项排他性法院选择协议的明确声明,且指出批量合同中载有该协议的部分;并且
    (二) 该协议清楚指定某一缔约国的数个法院或某一缔约国的一个或数个特定法院。
    二、根据本条第一款订立的排他性法院选择协议,只有满足下列各项条件,方能对不是批量合同当事人的人具有约束力:
    (一) 该法院位于第六十六条第一项所指定的地点之一;
    (二) 该协议载于运输单证或电子运输记录;
    (三) 关于诉讼提起地法院以及该法院拥有排他性管辖权的通知已及时、正确地发给该人;并且
    (四) 受案法院的法律承认该排他性法院选择协议对该人具有约束力。
Article 68  Actions against the maritime performing party
The plaintiff has the right to institute judicial proceedings under this Convention against the maritime performing party in a competent court within the jurisdiction of which is situated one of the following places:
(a) The domicile of the maritime performing party; or
(b) The port where the goods are received by the maritime performing party, the port where the goods are delivered by the maritime performing party or the port in which the maritime performing party performs its activities with respect to the goods.
    第六十八条
    对海运履约方的诉讼
    原告有权在对下列地点之一拥有管辖权的管辖法院,根据本公约对海运履约方提起司法程序:
    (一) 海运履约方的住所;或
    (二) 海运履约方接收货物的港口或海运履约方交付货物的港口,或海运履约方执行与货物有关的各种活动的港口。
Article 69  No additional bases of jurisdiction
Subject to articles 71 and 72, no judicial proceedings under this Convention against the carrier or a maritime performing party may be instituted in a court not designated pursuant to article 66 or 68.
    第六十九条
    不另增管辖权地
    除须遵循第七十一条和第七十二条的规定外,不得在不是根据第六十六条或第六十八条指定的法院,根据本公约对承运人或海运履约方提起司法程序。
Article 70  Arrest and provisional or protective measures
Nothing in this Convention affects jurisdiction with regard to provisional or protective measures, including arrest. A court in a State in which a provisional or protective measure was taken does not have jurisdiction to determine the case upon its merits unless:
(a) The requirements of this chapter are fulfilled; or
(b) An international convention that applies in that State so provides.
    第七十条
    扣留以及临时措施或保全措施
    本公约的规定概不影响对临时措施或保全措施,包括对扣留的管辖权。除非符合下列条件,否则临时措施或保全措施执行地所在国的法院不享有裁定案件实体的管辖权:
    (一) 符合本章的要求;或
    (二) 一项国际公约在该国适用的,该国际公约作此规定。
Article 71  Consolidation and removal of actions
1. Except when there is an exclusive choice of court agreement that is binding pursuant to article 67 or 72, if a single action is brought against both the carrier and the maritime performing party arising out of a single occurrence, the action may be instituted only in a court designated pursuant to both article 66 and article 68. If there is no such court, such action may be instituted in a court designated pursuant to article 68, subparagraph (b), if there is such a court.
2. Except when there is an exclusive choice of court agreement that is binding pursuant to article 67 or 72, a carrier or a maritime performing party that institutes an action seeking a declaration of non-liability or any other action that would deprive a person of its right to select the forum pursuant to article 66 or 68 shall, at the request of the defendant, withdraw that action once the defendant has chosen a court designated pursuant to article 66 or 68, whichever is applicable, where the action may be recommenced.
    第七十一条
    诉讼合并和移转
    一、除非根据第六十七条或第七十二条存在一项具有约束力的排他性法院选择协议,就同一事件同时对承运人和海运履约方提起一项共同诉讼的,只能在同时根据第六十六条和第六十八条指定的一法院提起该诉讼。无上述这类法院的,可以在根据第六十八条第二项指定的一法院,在其存在的情况下提起该诉讼。
    二、除非根据第六十七条或第七十二条存在一项具有约束力的排他性法院选择协议,承运人或海运履约方提起的诉讼寻求一项不承担赔偿责任声明的,或提起的其他任何诉讼将剥夺一人根据第六十六条或第六十八条选择诉讼地的权利的,该承运人或海运履约方应在被告已选择根据第六十六条或第六十八条(两者以适用者为准)所指定的法院的情况下,根据被告的要求撤回该诉讼,然后可以在该法院重新提起诉讼。
Article 72  Agreement after a dispute has arisen and jurisdiction when the defendant has entered an appearance
1. After a dispute has arisen, the parties to the dispute may agree to resolve it in any competent court.
2. A competent court before which a defendant appears, without contesting jurisdiction in accordance with the rules of that court, has jurisdiction.
    第七十二条
    争议产生后的协议和被告应诉时的管辖权
    一、争议产生后,争议各方当事人可以协议约定在任何管辖法院解决争议。
    二、被告在一管辖法院应诉,未根据该法院的规则提出管辖权异议的,该法院拥有管辖权。
Article 73  Recognition and enforcement
1. A decision made in one Contracting State by a court having jurisdiction under this Convention shall be recognized and enforced in another Contracting State in accordance with the law of such latter Contracting State when both States have made a declaration in accordance with article 74.
2. A court may refuse recognition and enforcement based on the grounds for the refusal of recognition and enforcement available pursuant to its law.
3. This chapter shall not affect the application of the rules of a regional economic integration organization that is a party to this Convention, as concerns the recognition or enforcement of judgements as between member States of the regional economic integration organization, whether adopted before or after this Convention.
    第七十三条
    承认和执行
    一、根据本公约拥有管辖权的一法院在一缔约国作出的裁决,应在另一缔约国根据该另一缔约国的法律得到承认和执行,但两国须已根据第七十四条作出声明。
    二、一法院可以以其法律所提供的拒绝承认和执行的理由为根据,拒绝给予承认和执行。
    三、本章不得影响加入本公约的区域经济一体化组织对其成员国彼此承认或执行判决适用本组织的规则,不论这些规则的通过时间是在本公约之前还是之后。
Article 74  Application of chapter 14
The provisions of this chapter shall bind only Contracting States that declare in accordance with article 91 that they will be bound by them.
    第七十四条
    第十四章的适用
    本章的规定只能对根据第九十一条声明其将受本章规定约束的缔约国具有约束力。
Chapter 15  Arbitration
    第十五章
    仲裁
Article 75  Arbitration agreements
1. Subject to this chapter, parties may agree that any dispute that may arise relating to the carriage of goods under this Convention shall be referred to arbitration.
2. The arbitration proceedings shall, at the option of the person asserting a claim against the carrier, take place at:
(a) Any place designated for that purpose in the arbitration agreement; or
(b) Any other place situated in a State where any of the following places is located:
(i) The domicile of the carrier;
(ii) The place of receipt agreed in the contract of carriage;
(iii) The place of delivery agreed in the contract of carriage; or
(iv) The port where the goods are initially loaded on a ship or the port where the goods are finally discharged from a ship.
3. The designation of the place of arbitration in the agreement is binding for disputes between the parties to the agreement if the agreement is contained in a volume contract that clearly states the names and addresses of the parties and either:
(a) Is individually negotiated; or
(b) Contains a prominent statement that there is an arbitration agreement and specifies the sections of the volume contract containing the arbitration agreement.
4. When an arbitration agreement has been concluded in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article, a person that is not a party to the volume contract is bound by the designation of the place of arbitration in that agreement only if:
(a) The place of arbitration designated in the agreement is situated in one of the places referred to in subparagraph 2 (b) of this article;
(b) The agreement is contained in the transport document or electronic transport record;
(c) The person to be bound is given timely and adequate notice of the place of arbitration; and
(d) Applicable law permits that person to be bound by the arbitration agreement.
5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this article are deemed to be part of every arbitration clause or agreement, and any term of such clause or agreement to the extent that it is inconsistent therewith is void.
    第七十五条
    仲裁协议
    一、除须遵循本章的规定外,当事人可以协议约定,任何根据本公约运输货物可能产生的争议均应提交仲裁。
    二、仲裁程序应按照对承运人提起索赔的人的选择:
    (一) 在仲裁协议为此目的指定的任何地点进行;或
    (二) 在一国的其他任何地点进行,下列任何地点位于该国即可:
    1. 承运人的住所;
    2. 运输合同约定的收货地;
    3. 运输合同约定的交货地;或
    4. 货物的最初装船港或货物的最终卸船港。
    三、仲裁协议指定的仲裁地对仲裁协议当事人之间的争议具有约束力,条件是,载有该仲裁协议的批量合同清楚载明各方当事人的名称和地址,且该批量合同属于下列情况之一:
    (一) 是单独协商订立的;或
    (二) 载有一则存在一项仲裁协议的明确声明,且指出批量合同中载有该仲裁协议的部分。
    四、仲裁协议已根据本条第三款订立的,该协议指定的仲裁地,只有满足下列条件,方能对不是批量合同当事人的人具有约束力:
    (一) 该协议指定的仲裁地位于本条第二款第二项述及的地点之一;
    (二) 该协议载于运输单证或电子运输记录;
    (三) 仲裁地通知已及时、正确地发给受仲裁协议约束的人;并且
    (四) 准据法准许该人受该仲裁协议的约束。
    五、本条第一款、第二款、第三款和第四款的规定,视为每一仲裁条款或仲裁协议的一部分,此种条款或协议的规定,凡与其不一致的,一概无效。
Article 76  Arbitra,tion agreement in non-liner transportation
1. Nothing in this Convention affects the enforceability of an arbitration agreement in a contract of carriage in non-liner transportation to which this Convention or the provisions of this Convention apply by reason of:
(a) The application of article 7; or
(b) The parties' voluntary incorporation of this Convention in a contract of carriage that would not otherwise be subject to this Convention.
2. Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this article, an arbitration agreement in a transport document or electronic transport record to which this Convention applies by reason of the application of article 7 is subject to this chapter unless such a transport document or electronic transport record:
(a) Identifies the parties to and the date of the charter party or other contract excluded from the application of this Convention by reason of the application of article 6; and
(b) Incorporates by specific reference the clause in the charter party or other contract that contains the terms of the arbitration agreement.
    第七十六条
    非班轮运输中的仲裁协议
    一、非班轮运输的运输合同由于下列原因而适用本公约或本公约规定的,本公约的规定概不影响该运输合同中仲裁协议的可执行性:
    (一) 适用第七条;或
    (二) 各方当事人自愿在本来不受本公约管辖的运输合同中纳入本公约。
    二、虽有本条第一款规定,运输单证或电子运输记录由于适用第七条而适用本公约的,其中的仲裁协议仍受本章的管辖,除非此种运输单证或电子运输记录:
    (一) 载明了因适用第六条而被排除在本公约适用范围之外的租船合同或其他合同的各方当事人和日期;并且
    (二) 以具体提及方式纳入了租船合同或其他合同中载有仲裁协议规定的条款。
Article 77  Agreement to arbitrate after a dispute has arisen
Notwithstanding the provisions of this chapter and chapter 14, after a dispute has arisen the parties to the dispute may agree to resolve it by arbitration in any place.
    第七十七条
    争议产生后的仲裁协议
    虽有本章和第十四章的规定,争议产生后,争议各方当事人仍可以协议约定在任何地点以仲裁方式解决争议。
Article 78  Application of chapter 15
The provisions of this chapter shall bind only Contracting States that declare in accordance with article 91 that they will be bound by them.
    第七十八条
    第十五章的适用
    本章的规定只能对根据第九十一条声明其将受本章规定约束的缔约国具有约束力。
Chapter 16  Validity of contractual terms
    第十六章
    合同条款的有效性
Article 79  General provisions
1. Unless otherwise provided in this Convention, any term in a contract of carriage is void to the extent that it:
(a) Directly or indirectly excludes or limits the obligations of the carrier or a maritime performing party under this Convention;
(b) Directly or indirectly excludes or limits the liability of the carrier or a maritime performing party for breach of an obligation under this Convention; or
(c) Assigns a benefit of insurance of the goods in favour of the carrier or a person referred to in article 18.
2. Unless otherwise provided in this Convention, any term in a contract of carriage is void to the extent that it:
(a) Directly or indirectly excludes, limits or increases the obligations under this Convention of the shipper, consignee, controlling party, holder or documentary shipper; or
(b) Directly or indirectly excludes, limits or increases the liability of the shipper, consignee, controlling party, holder or documentary shipper for breach of any of its obligations under this Convention.
    第七十九条
    一般规定
    一、除非本公约另有规定,运输合同中的条款,凡有下列情形之一的,一概无效:
    (一) 直接或间接,排除或限制承运人或海运履约方在本公约下所承担的义务;
    (二) 直接或间接,排除或限制承运人或海运履约方对违反本公约下的义务所负的赔偿责任;或
    (三) 将货物的保险利益转让给承运人或第十八条述及的人。
    二、除非本公约另有规定,运输合同中的条款,凡有下列情形之一的,一概无效:
    (一) 直接或间接,排除、限制或增加托运人、收货人、控制方、持有人或单证托运人在本公约下所承担的义务;或
    (二)  直接或间接,排除、限制或增加托运人、收货人、控制方、持有人或单证托运人对违反本公约下任何义务所负的赔偿责任。
Article 80  Special rules for volume contracts
1. Notwithstanding article 79, as between the carrier and the shipper, a volume contract to which this Convention applies may provide for greater or lesser rights, obligations and liabilities than those imposed by this Convention.
2. A derogation pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article is binding only when:
(a) The volume contract contains a prominent statement that it derogates from this Convention;
(b) The volume contract is (i) individually negotiated or (ii) prominently specifies the sections of the volume contract containing the derogations;
(c) The shipper is given an opportunity and notice of the opportunity to conclude a contract of carriage on terms and conditions that comply with this Convention without any derogation under this article; and
(d) The derogation is neither (i) incorporated by reference from another document nor (ii) included in a contract of adhesion that is not subject to negotiation.
3. A carrier's public schedule of prices and services, transport document, electronic transport record or similar document is not a volume contract pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article, but a volume contract may incorporate such documents by reference as terms of the contract.
4. Paragraph 1 of this article does not apply to rights and obligations provided in articles 14, subparagraphs (a) and (b), 29 and 32 or to liability arising from the breach thereof, nor does it apply to any liability arising from an act or omission referred to in article 61.
5. The terms of the volume contract that derogate from this Convention, if the volume contract satisfies the requirements of paragraph 2 of this article, apply between the carrier and any person other than the shipper provided that:
(a) Such person received information that prominently states that the volume contract derogates from this Convention and gave its express consent to be bound by such derogations; and
(b) Such consent is not solely set forth in a carrier's public schedule of prices and services, transport document or electronic transport record.
6. The party claiming the benefit of the derogation bears the burden of proof that the conditions for derogation have been fulfilled.
    第八十条
    批量合同特别规则
    一、虽有第七十九条的规定,在承运人与托运人之间,本公约所适用的批量合同可以约定增加或减少本公约中规定的权利、义务和赔偿责任。
    二、根据本条第一款作出的背离,仅在下列情况下具有约束力:
    (一) 批量合同载有一则该批量合同背离本公约的明确声明;
    (三) 给予了托运人按照符合本公约的条款和条件订立运输合同,而不根据本条作出任何背离的机会,且向托运人通知了此种机会;并且
    (四) 背离既不是1.以提及方式从另一文件并入,也不是2.包含在不经协商的附合合同中。
    三、承运人的公开运价表和服务表、运输单证、电子运输记录或类似文件不是本条第一款所指的批量合同,但批量合同可以通过提及方式并入此类文件,将其作为合同条款。
    四、本条第一款既不适用于第十四条第一项和第二项、第二十九条和第三十二条中规定的权利和义务或因违反这些规定而产生的赔偿责任,也不适用于因第六十一条述及的作为或不作为而产生的任何赔偿责任。
    五、批量合同满足本条第二款要求的,其中背离本公约的条款,须满足下列条件,方能在承运人与非托运人的其他任何人之间适用:
    (一) 该人已收到明确记载该批量合同背离本公约的信息,且已明确同意受此种背离的约束;并且
    (二) 此种同意不单在承运人的公开运价表和服务表、运输单证或电子运输记录上载明。
    六、一方当事人对背离本公约主张利益的,负有证明背离本公约的各项条件已得到满足的举证责任。
Article 81  Special rules for live animals and certain other goods
Notwithstanding article 79 and without prejudice to article 80, the contract of carriage may exclude or limit the obligations or the liability of both the carrier and a maritime performing party if:
(a) The goods are live animals, but any such exclusion or limitation will not be effective if the claimant proves that the loss of or damage to the goods, or delay in delivery, resulted from an act or omission of the carrier or of a person referred to in article 18, done with the intent to cause such loss of or damage to the goods or such loss due to delay or done recklessly and with knowledge that such loss or damage or such loss due to delay would probably result; or
(b) The character or condition of the goods or the circumstances and terms and conditions under which the carriage is to be performed are such as reasonably to justify a special agreement, provided that such contract of carriage is not related to ordinary commercial shipments made in the ordinary course of trade and that no negotiable transport document or negotiable electronic transport record is issued for the carriage of the goods.
    第八十一条
    活动物和某些其他货物特别规则
    虽有第七十九条的规定,在不影响第八十条的情况下,运输合同可以排除或限制承运人和海运履约方的义务或赔偿责任,条件是:
    (一) 货物是活动物,但如果索赔人证明,货物灭失、损坏或迟延交付,是由于承运人或第十八条述及的人故意造成此种货物灭失、损坏或此种迟延损失的作为或不作为所导致的,或是明知可能产生此种灭失、损坏或此种迟延损失而轻率地作为或不作为所导致的,则任何此种排除或限制均属无效;或
    (二) 货物的性质或状况,或进行运输的情况和条件,使得有合理的理由达成一项特别协议,但此种运输合同不能涉及正常贸易过程中所进行的正常商业货运,且此种货物运输未签发可转让运输单证或可转让电子运输记录。
Chapter 17  Matters not governed by this Convention
    第十七章
    本公约不管辖的事项
Article 82  International conventions governing the carriage of goods by other modes of transport
Nothing in this Convention affects the application of any of the following international conventions in force at the time this Convention enters into force, including any future amendment to such conventions, that regulate the liability of the carrier for loss of or damage to the goods:
(a) Any convention governing the carriage of goods by air to the extent that such convention according to its provisions applies to any part of the contract of carriage;
(b) Any convention governing the carriage of goods by road to the extent that such convention according to its provisions applies to the carriage of goods that remain loaded on a road cargo vehicle carried on board a ship;
(c) Any convention governing the carriage of goods by rail to the extent that such convention according to its provisions applies to carriage of goods by sea as a supplement to the carriage by rail; or
(d) Any convention governing the carriage of goods by inland waterways to the extent that such convention according to its provisions applies to a carriage of goods without trans-shipment both by inland waterways and sea.
    第八十二条
    管辖其他运输方式货物运输的国际公约
    本公约的规定概不影响适用在本公约生效时已生效的,规范承运人对货物灭失或损坏的赔偿责任的下列国际公约,包括今后对此种公约的任何修正:
    (一) 任何管辖航空货物运输的公约,此种公约根据其规定适用于运输合同的任何部分;
    (二) 任何管辖公路货物运输的公约,此种公约根据其规定适用于船载车辆不卸货的货物运输;
    (三) 任何管辖铁路货物运输的公约,此种公约根据其规定适用于补充铁路运输的海上货物运输;或
    (四) 任何管辖内河航道货物运输的公约,此种公约根据其规定适用于不在内河航道和海上转船的货物运输。
Article 83  Global limitation of liability
Nothing in this Convention affects the application of any international convention or national law regulating the global limitation of liability of vessel owners.
    第八十三条
    赔偿责任总限制
    本公约的规定概不影响适用任何规范船舶所有人赔偿责任总限制的国际公约或国内法。
Article 84  General average
Nothing in this Convention affects the application of terms in the contract of carriage or provisions of national law regarding the adjustment of general average.
    第八十四条
    共同海损
    本公约的规定概不影响适用有关共同海损理算的运输合同条款或国内法规定。
Article 85  Passengers and luggage
This Convention does not apply to a contract of carriage for passengers and their luggage.
    第八十五条
    旅客和行李
    本公约不适用于旅客及其行李的运输合同。
Article 86  Damage caused by nuclear incident
No liability arises under this Convention for damage caused by a nuclear incident if the operator of a nuclear installation is liable for such damage:
(a) Under the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960 as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocols of 16 November 1982 and 12 February 2004, the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 21 May 1963 as amended by the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention of 21 September 1988 and as amended by the Protocol to Amend the 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 12 September 1997, or the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage of 12 September 1997, including any amendment to these conventions and any future convention in respect of the liability of the operator of a nuclear installation for damage caused by a nuclear incident; or
(b) Under national law applicable to the liability for such damage, provided that such law is in all respects as favourable to persons that may suffer damage as either the Paris or Vienna Conventions or the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage.
    第八十六条
    核事故造成的损害
    对于核事故造成的损害,根据下列文书应由核设施经营人负赔偿责任的,不产生本公约下的任何赔偿责任:
    (一) 经1964年1月28日附加议定书以及1982年11月16日和2004年2月12日议定书修正的1960年7月29日《关于核能领域第三方责任巴黎公约》、经1988年9月21日《关于适用维也纳公约和巴黎公约的联合议定书》修正并经1997年9月12日《修正1963年核损害民事责任维也纳公约的议定书》修正的1963年5月21日《核损害民事责任维也纳公约》、或1997年9月12日《关于核损害补充赔偿公约》,包括就核设施经营人对核事故造成损害的赔偿责任对这些公约的任何修正以及这方面的任何新公约;或
    (二) 适用于此类损害赔偿责任的国内法,条件是此种国内法在各方面同《巴黎公约》、《维也纳公约》或《关于核损害补充赔偿公约》一样有利于可能遭受损害的人。
Chapter 18  Final clauses
    第十八章
    最后条款
Article 87  Depositary
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is hereby designated as the depositary of this Convention.
    第八十七条
    保存人
    兹指定联合国秘书长为本公约保存人。
Article 88  Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
1. This Convention is open for signature by all States at Rotterdam, the Netherlands, on 23 September 2009, and thereafter at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York.
2. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by the signatory States.
3. This Convention is open for accession by all States that are not signatory States as from the date it is open for signature.
4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval and accession are to be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
    第八十八条
    签署、批准、接受、核准或加入
    一、本公约2009年9月23日在荷兰鹿特丹开放供各国签署,随后在纽约联合国总部开放供各国签署。
    二、本公约须经签署国批准、接受或核准。
    三、本公约自开放供签署之日起对所有未签署国开放供加入。
    四、批准书、接受书、核准书和加入书应交存联合国秘书长。
Article 89  Denunciation of other conventions
1. A State that ratifies, accepts, approves or accedes to this Convention and is a party to the International Convention for the Unification of certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on 25 August 1924, to the Protocol to amend the International Convention for the Unification of certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading, signed at Brussels on 23 February 1968, or to the Protocol to amend the International Convention for the Unification of certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading as Modified by the Amending Protocol of 23 February 1968, signed at Brussels on 21 December 1979, shall at the same time denounce that Convention and the protocol or protocols thereto to which it is a party by notifying the Government of Belgium to that effect, with a declaration that the denunciation is to take effect as from the date when this Convention enters into force in respect of that State.
2. A State that ratifies, accepts, approves or accedes to this Convention and is a party to the United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea concluded at Hamburg on 31 March 1978 shall at the same time denounce that Convention by notifying the Secretary-General of the United Nations to that effect, with a declaration that the denunciation is to take effect as from the date when this Convention enters into force in respect of that State.
3. For the purposes of this article, ratifications, acceptances, approvals and accessions in respect of this Convention by States parties to the instruments listed in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article that are notified to the depositary after this Convention has entered into force are not effective until such denunciations as may be required on the part of those States in respect of these instruments have become effective. The depositary of this Convention shall consult with the Government of Belgium, as the depositary of the instruments referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, so as to ensure necessary coordination in this respect.
    第八十九条
    退出其他公约
    一、1924年8月25日在布鲁塞尔签署的《统一提单若干法律规则国际公约》、1968年2月23日签署的修正《统一提单若干法律规则国际公约》的议定书、或1979年12月21日在布鲁塞尔签署的修正经由1968年2月23日修正议定书修正的《统一提单若干法律规则国际公约》的议定书的缔约国,应在批准、接受、核准或加入本公约的同时,通过向比利时政府提供相应的通知,退出已是其缔约国的该公约及其议定书,同时声明退约自本公约对该国生效之日起生效。
    二、1978年3月31日在汉堡缔结的《联合国海上货物运输公约》的缔约国,应在批准、接受、核准或加入本公约的同时,通过向联合国秘书长提供相应的通知,退出该公约,同时声明退约自本公约对该国生效之日起生效。
    三、就本条而言,本条第一款和第二款所列文书的缔约国对本公约的批准、接受、核准和加入,凡在本公约生效之后通知保存人的,只有在这些国家按照要求对这些文书的退出生效之后方可生效。本公约保存人应与作为本条第一款所列文书保存人的比利时政府协商,确保这方面的必要协调。
Article 90  Reservations
No reservation is permitted to this Convention.
    第九十条
    保留
    不准许对本公约作出保留。
Article 91  Procedure and effect of declarations
1. The declarations permitted by articles 74 and 78 may be made at any time. The initial declarations permitted by article 92, paragraph 1, and article 93, paragraph 2, shall be made at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. No other declaration is permitted under this Convention.
2. Declarations made at the time of signature are subject to confirmation upon ratification, acceptance or approval.
3. Declarations and their confirmations are to be in writing and to be formally notified to the depositary.
4. A declaration takes effect simultaneously with the entry into force of this Convention in respect of the State concerned. However, a declaration of which the depositary receives formal notification after such entry into force takes effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of its receipt by the depositary.
5. Any State that makes a declaration under this Convention may withdraw it at any time by a formal notification in writing addressed to the depositary. The withdrawal of a declaration, or its modification where permitted by this Convention, takes effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of six months after the date of the receipt of the notification by the depositary.
    第九十一条
    声明的程序和效力
    一、第七十四条和第七十八条所准许的声明,可以在任何时间作出。第九十二条第一款和第九十三条第二款所准许的初步声明,应在签署、批准、接受、核准或加入时作出。其他声明,本公约一概不予准许。
    二、在签署时作出的声明,必须在批准、接受或核准时加以确认。
    三、声明及其确认,应以书面形式作出,且应正式通知保存人。
    四、声明在本公约对有关国家生效时同时生效。但是,保存人于本公约生效后收到正式通知的声明,应于保存人收到该声明之日起六个月期满后的下一个月第一日生效。
    五、根据本公约作出声明的任何国家,可以在任何时间以书面形式正式通知保存人撤回该声明。声明的撤回,或在本公约准许情况下对声明的更改,于保存人收到该通知之日起六个月期满后的下一个月第一日生效。
Article 92  Effect in domestic territorial units
1. If a Contracting State has two or more territorial units in which different systems of law are applicable in relation to the matters dealt with in this Convention, it may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that this Convention is to extend to all its territorial units or only to one or more of them, and may amend its declaration by submitting another declaration at any time.
2. These declarations are to be notified to the depositary and are to state expressly the territorial units to which the Convention extends.
3. When a Contracting State has declared pursuant to this article that this Convention extends to one or more but not all of its territorial units, a place located in a territorial unit to which this Convention does not extend is not considered to be in a Contracting State for the purposes of this Convention.
4. If a Contracting State makes no declaration pursuant to paragraph 1 of this article, the Convention is to extend to all territorial units of that State.
    第九十二条
    对本国领土单位的效力
    一、一缔约国拥有两个或多个领土单位,各领土单位对本公约所涉事项适用不同法律制度的,可以在签署、批准、接受、核准或加入时声明本公约适用于本国的全部领土单位或仅适用于其中的一个或数个领土单位,且可以在任何时间通过提出另一声明修改其所作的声明。
    二、此种声明应通知保存人,且明确指出适用本公约的领土单位。
    三、一缔约国根据本条声明本公约适用于该国的一个或数个领土单位而不是全部领土单位的,一地点位于不适用本公约的领土单位,为本公约之目的,视为不在缔约国内。
    四、一缔约国未根据本条第一款提出声明的,本公约适用于该国的全部领土单位。
Article 93  Participation by regional economic integration organizations
1. A regional economic integration organization that is constituted by sovereign States and has competence over certain matters governed by this Convention may similarly sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to this Convention. The regional economic integration organization shall in that case have the rights and obligations of a Contracting State, to the extent that that organization has competence over matters governed by this Convention. When the number of Contracting States is relevant in this Convention, the regional economic integration organization does not count as a Contracting State in addition to its member States which are Contracting States.
2. The regional economic integration organization shall, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, make a declaration to the depositary specifying the matters governed by this Convention in respect of which competence has been transferred to that organization by its member States. The regional economic integration organization shall promptly notify the depositary of any changes to the distribution of competence, including new transfers of competence, specified in the declaration pursuant to this paragraph.
3. Any reference to a "Contracting State" or "Contracting States" in this Convention applies equally to a regional economic integration organization when the context so requires.
    第九十三条
    区域经济一体化组织的参与
    二、区域经济一体化组织应在签署、批准、接受、核准或加入时向保存人提出声明,指出对本公约所管辖的哪些事项的管辖权已由其成员国转移给该组织。根据本款提出声明后,如果管辖权分配发生任何变化,包括管辖权新的转移,区域经济一体化组织应迅速通知保存人。
    三、本公约中,对“一缔约国”或“缔约国”的任何提及,必要时同等适用于区域经济一体化组织。
Article 94  Entry into force
1. This Convention enters into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year after the date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. For each State that becomes a Contracting State to this Convention after the date of the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, this Convention enters into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year after the deposit of the appropriate instrument on behalf of that State.
3. Each Contracting State shall apply this Convention to contracts of carriage concluded on or after the date of the entry into force of this Convention in respect of that State.
    第九十四条
    生效
    一、本公约于第二十份批准书、接受书、核准书或加入书交存之日起一年期满后的下一个月第一日生效。
    二、一国在第二十份批准书、接受书、核准书或加入书交存日之后成为本公约缔约国的,本公约于交存该国的相应文书一年期满后的下一个月第一日对该国生效。
    三、运输合同于本公约对一缔约国生效之日或生效之后订立的,该缔约国应对其适用本公约。
Article 95  Revision and amendment
1. At the request of not less than one third of the Contracting States to this Convention, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene a conference of the Contracting States for revising or amending it.
2. Any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession deposited after the entry into force of an amendment to this Convention is deemed to apply to the Convention as amended.
    第九十五条
    修订和修正
    一、在不少于三分之一本公约缔约国的请求下,联合国秘书长应召开缔约国会议修订或修正本公约。
    二、本公约修正案生效后交存的任何批准书、接受书、核准书或加入书,视为适用于经修正的公约。
Article 96  Denunciation of this Convention
1. A Contracting State may denounce this Convention at any time by means of a notification in writing addressed to the depositary.
2. The denunciation takes effect on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year after the notification is received by the depositary. If a longer period is specified in the notification, the denunciation takes effect upon the expiration of such longer period after the notification is received by the depositary.
DONE at New York, this eleventh day of December two thousand and eight, in a single original, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.
    第九十六条
    退出本公约
    一、缔约国可以通过向保存人发出书面通知,于任何时间退出本公约。
    二、退约于保存人收到通知一年期满后的下一个月第一日生效。通知中指明更长期限的,退约于保存人收到通知后该更长期限期满时生效。
    二零零八年十二月十一日订于纽约,正本一份,阿拉伯文、中文、英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文文本同为作准文本。
    兹由经各国政府正式授权的下列署名全权代表签署本公约,以昭信守。

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