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联合国消除一切形式种族歧视宣言
作者:赵丽娜律师发布   出处:法律顾问网·涉外www.flguwen.com     时间:2011-03-29 14:02:00

United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

联合国消除一切形式种族歧视宣言

Signatory: General Assembly of the United Nations
Date of Signature: 11/20/1963
Validity Status: Valid
缔约方: 联合国大会
缔约时间: 11/20/1963
效力状态: 有效

Text

正文

The General Assembly,
Considering that the Charter of the United Nations is based on the principles of the dignity and equality of all human beings and seeks, among other basic objectives, to achieve international co-operation in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion, Considering that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set out in the Declaration, without distinction of any kind, in particular as to race, colour or national origin, Considering that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims further that all are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law and that all are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination and against any incitement to such discrimination, Considering that the United Nations has condemned colonialism and all practices of segregation and discrimination associated therewith, and that the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples proclaims in particular the necessity of bringing colonialism to a speedy and unconditional end, Considering that any doctrine of racial differentiation or superiority is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous, and that there is no justification for racial discrimination either in theory or in practice, Taking into account the other resolutions adopted by the General Assembly and the international instruments adopted by the specialized agencies, in particular the International Labour Organisation and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, in the field of discrimination, Taking into account the fact that, although international action and efforts in a number of countries have made it possible to achieve progress in that field, discrimination based on race, colour or ethnic origin in certain areas of the world continues none the less to give cause for serious concern,
    大会,
    鉴于联合国宪章系以全体人类尊严与平等的原则为基础,除其他基本目标外,旨在促成国际合作,俾不分种族、性别、语言或宗教,增进并激励对于全体人类的人权及基本自由的尊重,鉴于世界人权宣言宣示人皆生而自由,在尊严及权利上均各平等,人人皆有权享受该宣言所载的一切权利与自由,无分轩轾,尤其不因种族、肤色或民族而分轩轾,鉴于世界人权宣言并宣示人人在法律上一律平等,且不分轩轾有权享受法律的平等保护,又人人有权享受平等保护以防任何歧视及防任何煽动此种歧视的行为,鉴于联合国业已谴责殖民主义及与之并行的各种隔离及歧视办法,而给予殖民地国家和人民独立宣言亦特别宣告亟须促使殖民主义迅速无条件终止,鉴于任何种族差别或种族优越的学说在科学上均属错误,在道德上应受谴责,在社会上实为不公,且有危险,无论在理论上或实践上均不能为种族歧视辩解,考虑到在有关歧视方面,大会所通过的其他决议以及各专门机构--特别是国际劳工组织及联合国教育、科学及文化组织--所通过的国际文书,考虑到在此方面虽因国际行动及若干国家内所作的努力而得获进展,但在世界若干地区内基于种族、肤色或人种的歧视仍继续令人深感忧虑,世界若干地区内显然仍有种族歧视的现象,此等现象有一部分系若干政府借立法、行政或其他措施,以“种族隔离”,分隔及分离等形式而造成,或借 在若干地区内鼓吹及传布种族优越及扩张主义的学说而造成。
Alarmed by the manifestations of racial discrimination still in evidence in some areas of the world, some of which are imposed by certain Governments by means of legislative, administrative or other measures, in the form, inter alia, of apartheid, segregation and separation, as well as by the promotion and dissemination of doctrines of racial superiority and expansionism in certain areas,
Convinced that all forms of racial discrimination and, still more so, governmental policies based on the prejudice of racial superiority or on racial hatred, besides constituting a violation of fundamental human rights, tend to jeopardize friendly relations among peoples, co-operation between nations and international peace and security,
Convinced also that racial discrimination harms not only those who are its objects but also those who practise it.
Convinced further that the building of a world society free from all forms of racial segregation and discrimination, factors which create hatred and division among men, is one of the fundamental objectives of the United Nations,
1. Solemnly affirms the necessity of speedily eliminating racial discrimination throughout the world, in all its forms and manifestations, and of securing understanding of and respect for the dignity of the human person;
2. Solemnly affirms the necessity of adopting national and international measures to that end, including teaching, education and information, in order to secure the universal and effective recognition and observance of the principles set forth below;
3. Proclaims this Declaration:
    深信一切形式的种族歧视,尤其是基于种族优越偏见或种族仇恨的政府政策,除构成基本人权的侵害外,亦足以妨害人民间的友好关系、国家间的合作以及国际和平及安全,又深信种族歧视不仅对受歧视者有害,对实行歧视者亦然,复深信建立一绝无任何种族隔离与种族歧视形式的世界社会,乃联合国基本目标之一,盖种族隔离与种族歧视实为造成人类仇恨与分裂的因素,一、郑重宣告:全世界一切种族歧视形式及现象的迅速消除及确保对人格尊严的了解与尊重,实属必要;二、郑重宣告:为达此目的,必须采取国内及国际措施,包括讲授、教育及新闻在内,使下列原则获得普遍切实的承认与遵行;三、爰颁布本宣言:
Article 1
Discrimination between human beings on the ground of race, colour or ethnic origin is an offence to human dignity and shall be condemned as a denial of the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, as a violation of the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as an obstacle to friendly and peaceful relations among nations and as a fact capable of disturbing peace and security among peoples.
    第一条  
    人与人间基于种族、肤色或人种的歧视系对人类尊严的凌辱,应视为否定联合国宪章原则、侵害世界人权宣言所宣示的人权与基本自由、妨碍国际友好和平关系及足以扰乱人民间和平与安全之事实,加以谴责。
Article 2
1. No State, institution, group or individual shall make any discrimination whatsoever in matters of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the treatment of persons, groups of persons or institutions on the ground of race, colour or ethnic origin.
2. No State shall encourage, advocate or lend its support, through police action or otherwise, to any discrimination based on race, colour or ethnic origin by any group, institution or individual.
3. Special concrete measures shall be taken in appropriate circumstances in order to secure adequate development or protection of individuals belonging to certain racial groups with the object of ensuring the full enjoyment by such individuals of human rights and fundamental freedoms. These measures shall in no circumstances have as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate rights for different racial groups.
    第二条  
    一、任何国家、机关、团体或个人不得基于种族、肤色或人种的理由,在人权与基本自由方面对人、对人群或对机关的待遇有任何一种歧视。
    二、任何国家不得鼓励、鼓吹或以警察行动或其他办法支持任何团体、机关或个人基于种族、肤色或人种的任何歧视。
    三、为使属于某种族团体的人获得充分发展或保护起见,应在适当情形下采取特种具体措施,以期确保各该人等充分享受人权与基本自由。
    凡此措施,无论如何,不得产生在不同种族团体间维持不平等或各别的权利的后果。
Article 3
1. Particular efforts shall be made to prevent discrimination based on race, colour or ethnic origin, especially in the fields of civil rights, access to citizenship, education, religion, employment, occupation and housing.
2. Everyone shall have equal access to any place or facility intended for use by the general public, without distinction as to race, colour or ethnic origin.
    第三条  
    一、凡基于种族、肤色或人种的歧视,应特别努力加以防止,尤以往公民权利、公民资格的取得、教育、宗教、就业、职业及居住方面为然。
    二、人人不分种族、肤色或人种,皆有利用任何供公众使用的地方或便利的平等机会。
Article 4
All States shall take effective measures to revise governmental and other public policies and to rescind laws and regulations which have the effect of creating and perpetuating racial discrimination wherever it still exists. They should pass legislation for prohibiting such discrimination and should take all appropriate measures to combat those prejudices which lead to racial discrimination.
    第四条  
    所有国家均应采取有效措施,将政府政策及其他公共政策足以造成种族歧视或维持现仍存在的种族歧视者,予以修改,法律规章产生同样结果者,亦予废止。各国应制定法律禁止此种歧视,并应采取一切适当措施,纠正引起种族歧视的偏见。
Article 5
An end shall be put without delay to governmental and other public policies of racial segregation and especially policies of apartheid, as well as all forms of racial discrimination and separation resulting from such policies.
    第五条  
    政府方面及其他公共方面的种族分隔政策,尤其“种族隔离”政策,以及因此等政策而产生的所有各种形式的种族歧视及隔离,悉应终止,毋得迟延。
Article 6
No discrimination by reason of race, colour or ethnic origin shall be admitted in the enjoyment by any person of political and citizenship rights in his country, in particular the right to participate in elections through universal and equal suffrage and to take part in the government. Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
    第六条  
    任何人在其本国所享有的政治及公民权利,尤其以普遍平等投票方式参与选举及参加政府的权利,不得因种族、肤色或人种而受歧视。人人在其本国有同等服公务的权利。
Article 7
1. Everyone has the right to equality before the law and to equal justice under the law. Everyone, without distinction as to race, colour or ethnic origin, has the right to security of person and protection by the State against violence or bodily harm, whether inflicted by government officials or by any individual, group or institution.
2. Everyone shall have the right to an effective remedy and protection against any discrimination he may suffer on the ground of race, colour or ethnic origin with respect to his fundamental rights and freedoms through independent national tribunals competent to deal with such matters.
    第七条  
    一、人人有在法律上一律平等及依法受平等裁判的权利。人人不分种族、肤色或人种,有权享受人身安全及国家保护以防强暴或身体上的伤害,不问其为政府官员所加抑为任何私人、团体或机关所加。
    二、人人因种族、肤色或人种关系致其基本权利与自由受歧视时,有权经由独立的国内主管法庭,取得有效的补救与保护。
Article 8
All effective steps shall be taken immediately in the fields of teaching, education and information, with a view to eliminating racial discrimination and prejudice and promoting understanding, tolerance and friendship among nations and racial groups, as well as to propagating the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.
    第八条  
    在讲授、教育及新闻各方面,应立即采取一切有效步骤,与消除种族歧视与偏见,增进国家间及种族团体间的了解、容恕与睦谊,并宣扬联合国宪章、世界人权宣言及给予殖民地国家和人民独立宣言所载的宗旨与原则。
Article 9
1. All propaganda and organizations based on ideas or theories of the superiority of one race or group of persons of one colour or ethnic origin with a view to justifying or promoting racial discrimination in any form shall be severely condemned.
2. All incitement to or acts of violence, whether by individuals or organizations against any race or group of persons of another colour or ethnic origin shall be considered an offence against society and punishable under law.
3. In order to put into effect the purposes and principles of the present Declaration, all States shall take immediate and positive measures, including legislative and other measures, to prosecute and/or outlaw organizations which promote or incite to racial discrimination, or incite to or use violence for purposes of discrimination based on race, colour or ethnic origin.
    第九条  
    一、一切宣传及组织,凡以某一种族或属于某一肤色或人种的人群为优越的思想或理论作根据,而意图为任何形式的种族歧视辩解或鼓吹者,概应严加谴责。
    二、一切使人为强暴的煽动或一切强暴行为以反对任何种族或反对属于另一肤色或人种的人群者,不问出于个人抑出于组织所为,概应视为妨害社会的行为,依法惩处。
    三、为实施本宣言之宗旨与原则起见,所有国家应立即采取积极措施,包括立法及其他措施在内,对于各组织的怂恿或煽动种族歧视,或煽动强暴或使用强暴以达基于种族、肤色或人种之歧视为目的者,予以诉究并(或)宣告其为非法。
Article 10
The United Nations, the specialized agencies, States and non-governmental organizations shall do all in their power to promote energetic action which, by combining legal and other practical measures, will make possible the abolition of all forms of racial discrimination. They shall, in particular, study the causes of such discrimination with a view to recommending appropriate and effective measures to combat and eliminate it.
    第十条  
    联合国、各专门机构、各国及各非政府组织应尽力促成有力行动,兼用法律与其他实际措施,俾克废除一切形式的种族歧视。上述各组织尤须研究此种歧视所以发生的原因,以便建议适当有效措施予以纠正并消除。
Article 11
Every State shall promote respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and shall fully and faithfully observe the provisions of the present Declaration, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.
    第十一条  
    各国均应依照联合国宪章促进对人权及基本自由的尊重与遵守;并充分及忠实履行本宣言、世界人权宣言及给予殖民地国家和人民独立宣言的各项规定。

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